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SPECIES

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  • From the abstract of one of the papers: Three new zooplankton nets have been designed to enable improved collection of zooplankters from ice-covered waters. These nets also enable quantitative sampling of species not adequately sampled by other methods. The first net is a vertical tow net which can be folded like an umbrella to pass through a small ice hole (10 cm). This 'Umbrella Net' takes an integrated sample of zooplankton from all sample depths. The second net is a collapsible free-fall net designed to collect mobile zooplankters capable of avoiding towed nets. This was the only net used which was capable of collecting all furcilia stages of Euphausia crystallorophias from Ellis Fjord, Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. The third net is a diver-operated push net designed to collect zooplankters in the top 15 cm of the under-ice column. Because of the high standing crop of pytoplankton at and near the under-ice surface at particular times of the year, some species of zooplankton tend to congregate there. These species, particularly Paralabidocera antarctica, were collected in great abundance using the push net, but were rare in samples collected by other methods. The fields in this dataset are: species species density site sample

  • A hierarchical, 3-level, nested design was used. The highest hierarchical level consisted of six locations. Two of these locations, Brown Bay and Shannon Bay, have been contaminated with heavy metals (Stark et al., 2003; Snape et al., 2001); Brown Bay has also been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (Snape et al., 2001). The remaining four locations are more distant from Casey Station and were used as control locations. These locations were Denison Island, Odbert Island, O'Brien Bay and Sparkes Bay. A full description of these sites is given below. Within each location two sites were selected approximately 100 m apart. Within each site, two plots were sampled (~ 10 m apart). Although the sampling program had been designed for four replicates within each plot, the patchy distribution of bottom sediments in the Windmill Islands restricted this to two replicate samples (~ 1 m apart) per plot. Samples were collected using an Eckman grab sampler, deployed from a boat. To minimise the potential influence of water depth, all samples were collected from 8 m water depth. Samples were collected within a three day period in early February when no sea-ice was present. Diatom data are presented as the relative abundances of benthic species. Samples are identified xyz where x = first initial of sample location (or first 2 initials where 2 locations start with the same letter), y = plot number (plots 1 and 2 represent site 1, while plots 3 and 4 are from site 2), and z = replicate number (a or b). Abbreviations used for species are shown in the separate file sp_list. This work was completed as part of ASAC project 1130 (ASAC_1130) and project 2201 (ASAC_2201). Public summary from project 1130: Algal mats grow on sea floor in most shallow marine environments. They are thought to contribute more than half of the total primary production in many of these areas, making them a critical food source for invertebrates and some fish. We will establish how important they are in Antarctic marine environments and determine the effects of local sewerage and tip site pollution. We will also investigate the impact on the algal mats of the additional UV radiation which results from the ozone hole. Public summary from project 2201: As a signatory to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty Australia is committed to comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment. This protocol requires that activities in the Antarctic shall be planned and conducted on the basis of information sufficient to make prior assessments of, and informed judgements about, their possible impacts on the Antarctic environment. Most of our activities in the Antarctic occur along the narrow fringe of ice-free rock adjacent to the sea and many of our activities have the potential to cause environmental harm to marine life. The Antarctic seas support the most complex and biologically diverse plant and animal communities of the region. However, very little is known about them and there is certainly not sufficient known to make informed judgements about possible environmental impacts The animals and plants of the sea-bed are widely accepted as being the most appropriate part of the marine ecosystem for indicating disturbance caused by local sources. Attached sea-bed organisms have a fixed spatial relationship with a given place so they must either endure conditions or die. Once lost from a site recolonisation takes some time, as a consequence the structure of sea-bed communities reflect not only present conditions but they can also integrate conditions in the past. In contrast, fish and planktonic organisms can move freely so their site of capture does not indicate a long residence time at that location. Because sea-bed communities are particularly diverse they contain species with widely differing life strategies, as a result different species can have very different levels of tolerance to stress; this leads to a range of subtle changes in community structure as a response to gradually increasing disturbance, rather than an all or nothing response. This project will examine sea-bed communities near our stations to determine how seriously they are affected by human activities. This information will be used to set priorities for improving operational procedures to reduce the risk of further environmental damage. The fields in this dataset are: Species Site Abundance Benthic

  • Metadata record for data expected from ASAC Project 250 See the link below for public details on this project. The study investigated the impacts of oiling on the biota of rocky shores. Five shore zones were evaluated and kelp holdfasts were collected (but not evaluated as part of this project). Data were collected using quadrat and line transect methods using counts and percentage cover as variables. Data for this work was also used in ASAC projects 672 and 1003 (ASAC_672, ASAC_1003). This dataset contains the 1988 data only. The site codes used in this project are: SB = Sandy Bay SEC = Secluded Bay BB = Buckles Bay GC = Garden Cove GG = Green Gorge GB = Goat Bay The first number given after the site code is the site number at that sampling location. The second number is the replicate at that site. Thus sb(1)3 is Sandy Bay site 1, replicate 3. The numbers are total individuals of each species that were found in each holdfast sample. This is a basic, though standard, species-abundance matrix. The fields in this dataset are: Species Year Site

  • Colonisation of Lake Fletcher, a hypersaline, meromictic lake in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica, by the calanoid copepod Drepanopus bispinosus, the cyclopoid copepod Oncea curvata and an undescribed cydippid ctenophore is discussed. In 1978, salinity direstly under the ice was 66 ppt and repeated net hauls found no zooplankton. In 1983, adults of D. bispinosus were found, and in 1984, a reproductively active population of this species. Surface water salinity in 1984 was 56 ppt. During winter 1986, surface salinity was 54 ppt and three zooplankton species (D. bispinosus, O curvata and an undescribed cydippid ctenophore) had established populations in the lake. In 1986/87, high tides caused nearby Taynaya Bay to flood into the lake, and three further species (the calanoid, Paralabidocera antarctica, and two harpacticoids, Harpacticus furcatus and Idomene sp.) were found in the lake. It appears that periodic flooding after 1978 caused a salinity decrease in the lake from 66 to 54 ppt, and this enabled some invertebrate species to maintain year-round populations, whereas others require marine incursions to re-establish summer only populations. The fields in this dataset are: Date Salinity Record Species

  • Ten sediment cores were collected from 3 marine bays in the Windmill Islands. Two cores were collected in Sparkes Bay, one in Shannon Bay, and seven in Brown Bay. Only diatom data are presented here, however Pb210 and metal analyses have also been undertaken - contact Ian Snape (ian.snape@aad.gov.au) for more information regarding this. The diatom spreadsheet (diatom_data) lists the relative abundance of benthic species. The abbreviation used to identify species are explained in the separate file called sp_list. Each core has been saved as a separate file. The STE cores were collected from within a couple of meters of each other. These cores were collected in close proximity to a tip site at one end of Brown Bay. BBMid was collected from the middle of the bay, while BB Outer 1 and 2 were collected from the outer regions of this bay, and thus represent the greatest distance from the tip site. Unless otherwise stated, the lowest number within each core represents the youngest sample. This work was completed as part of ASAC project 1130 (ASAC_1130) and project 2201 (ASAC_2201). Public summary from project 1130: Algal mats grow on sea floor in most shallow marine environments. They are thought to contribute more than half of the total primary production in many of these areas, making them a critical food source for invertebrates and some fish. We will establish how important they are in Antarctic marine environments and determine the effects of local sewerage and tip site pollution. We will also investigate the impact on the algal mats of the additional UV radiation which results from the ozone hole. Public summary from project 2201: As a signatory to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty Australia is committed to comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment. This protocol requires that activities in the Antarctic shall be planned and conducted on the basis of information sufficient to make prior assessments of, and informed judgements about, their possible impacts on the Antarctic environment. Most of our activities in the Antarctic occur along the narrow fringe of ice-free rock adjacent to the sea and many of our activities have the potential to cause environmental harm to marine life. The Antarctic seas support the most complex and biologically diverse plant and animal communities of the region. However, very little is known about them and there is certainly not sufficient known to make informed judgements about possible environmental impacts. The animals and plants of the sea-bed are widely accepted as being the most appropriate part of the marine ecosystem for indicating disturbance caused by local sources. Attached sea-bed organisms have a fixed spatial relationship with a given place so they must either endure conditions or die. Once lost from a site recolonisation takes some time, as a consequence the structure of sea-bed communities reflect not only present conditions but they can also integrate conditions in the past. In contrast, fish and planktonic organisms can move freely so their site of capture does not indicate a long residence time at that location. Because sea-bed communities are particularly diverse they contain species with widely differing life strategies, as a result different species can have very different levels of tolerance to stress; this leads to a range of subtle changes in community structure as a response to gradually increasing disturbance, rather than an all or nothing response. This project will examine sea-bed communities near our stations to determine how seriously they are affected by human activities. This information will be used to set priorities for improving operational procedures to reduce the risk of further environmental damage. The fields in this dataset are: Species Site Abundance Benthic

  • Metadata record for data expected from ASAC Project 1003 Further investigations of the effects of the Nella Dan oil spill on intertidal benthic communities at Macquarie Island: continued recovery of kelp holdfast communities. See the link below for public details on this project. The project investigated spatial variation in kelp holdfast macrofaunal communities 7 years after the initial oil spill. The project was expanded to cover more sites than were sampled in projects 250 (ASAC_250) and 672 (ASAC_672). Results indicated that an impact was still detectable at one of the 3 oiled sites. This dataset contains the 1988 and 1994 data. Holdfast data from the 1994/1995 season is also included (comparing east versus west). The numbers are total individuals of each species that were found in each holdfast sample. This is a basic, though standard, species-abundance matrix. The site codes used in this project are: SB = Sandy Bay SEC = Secluded Bay BB = Buckles Bay GC = Garden Cove GG = Green Gorge GB = Goat Bay HMB = Half Moon Bay BAUER = Bauer Bay Other codes as for oil spill data The first number given after the site code is the site number at that sampling location. The second number is the replicate at that site. Thus sb(1)3 is Sandy Bay site 1, replicate 3. The fields in this dataset are: Species Year Site

  • Metadata record for data expected from ASAC Project 996 See the link below for public details on this project. The study investigated the effects of the small sewage outfall on algal epifauna in the isthmus area. No impacts were detected and patterns of community structure were tentatively explained by local differences in wave exposure gradients. From the abstract to the referenced paper: As part of a wider programme investigating the effects of human presence on Antarctic and sub-Antarctic ecosystems, this study evaluated the impact of the small sewage outfall at Macquarie Island on the epifauna living within turfs of the intertidal red alga Chaetangium fastigiatum. Sampling was conducted during early December (austral summer) in both 1996 and 1997 at six sites, two sites within each of three adjacent bays. The site closest to the outfall was 3m from the point of discharge. Data analyses at the population and community levels failed to demonstrate a significant effect of the outfall. Small scale spatial patterns, probably related to wave exposure, and inter-annual variation in recruitment, are suggested as the main causes of variation in patterns of epifaunal dominance during the study. The site codes used in this dataset are: GCS - Garden Cove South GCN - Garden Cove North GBS - Bay 1 South GBN - Bay 1 North CS - Bay 2 North CN - Bay 2 South At each site 5 replicates were taken. The numbers are total individuals of each species that were found in each Chaetangium sample. This is a basic, though standard, species-abundance matrix. The fields in this dataset are: Species Site Year

  • SAZ photos of sediment trap samples Sediment traps are cones which intercept and store falling marine particles in collection cups. The particles consist of a range of material including phytoplankton, zooplankton, faecal pellets, and dust. Each trap collects a time series of samples. The sediment traps are from deep moorings in the Southern Ocean, typically at 47S, 54S, and 61S and at around 140 degrees East. Each mooring typically has 2-3 traps between 800m and 3800m below sea-level. The samples are size fractionated into less than 1mm and greater than 1mm fractions using a 1mm sieve. Various chemical analyses and observations have been made on the less than 1mm fraction. These are photos are of greater than 1mm fraction, mainly showing 'swimmers.' Photos are mostly taken on the sieve, so the grid is 1mm for scale. Sample identification is in the file name, and also in a label in the photo. The file name format is: Typical example s02_54_800_04.jpg 1) s02: s is for SAZ. Collection season number is first year of collection season. So s02 is from SAZ 2002-2003. 2) 54: Nominal latitude. 3) 800: Nominal depth, m. 4) 04: Cup number, typically 1-21 or 1-13, single digit numbers padded with a zero to help operating systems display files in order. 5) .jpg: All photos are in jpeg format Some files have additional information at end, examples below: * FP: faecal pellet * begin and end: beginning and end of sieving process. Mostly to show faecal pellets at start that are rinsed through sieve. This work was completed as part of ASAC project 1156 (ASAC_1156). See also the metadata record 'Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) Sediment Trap Moorings' (SAZOTS).

  • A sediment core was collected from the western side of Pidgeon Island, (66.3216 S, 110.445 E) at a water depth of 82.0 m. This sediment core (PG 1411-2) was recovered using a release-controlled piston corer, with a length of 3 m, using the coring technique described in Melles et al., (1994). The total core length was 240 cm. This core was stored in the dark, at 0 degrees C until required. Samples were taken for diatom analyses and radiocarbon (14C) dating. Prior to sub-sampling the core was split in half, along its length. One half was used for sampling, the other kept intact and stored at IASOS (University of Tasmania). To reduce potential contamination, resulting from the disturbance of sediments during the core-splitting procedure, a thin layer of sediment was removed from the exposed surface immediately prior to sampling. In order to obtain samples for diatom analysis, a toothpick was inserted into the core segment, and used to gouge a small amount of sediment from the middle of the core. Samples for diatom analyses were initially collected every 5 mm, however, sampling frequency progressively decreased down the core. Samples for radiocarbon data consisted of at least 1 cm 3 of sediment, collected from the middle of the core. These samples were collected from between 0-1 cm, 12-13 cm, 59-60 cm, 77-78 cm, 117-118 cm, and 229-230 cm depth. Diatom data are presented as raw counts, benthic abundances, the ratio of benthic to plankton species, and as the benthic index. Calculated ages (in years) are also given for all samples. The sedimentological core log is given as a powerpoint presentation. This work was completed as part of ASAC project 1130 (ASAC_1130) and project 2201 (ASAC_2201). Public summary from project 1130: Algal mats grow on sea floor in most shallow marine environments. They are thought to contribute more than half of the total primary production in many of these areas, making them a critical food source for invertebrates and some fish. We will establish how important they are in Antarctic marine environments and determine the effects of local sewerage and tip site pollution. We will also investigate the impact on the algal mats of the additional UV radiation which results from the ozone hole. Public summary from project 2201: As a signatory to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty Australia is committed to comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment. This protocol requires that activities in the Antarctic shall be planned and conducted on the basis of information sufficient to make prior assessments of, and informed judgements about, their possible impacts on the Antarctic environment. Most of our activities in the Antarctic occur along the narrow fringe of ice-free rock adjacent to the sea and many of our activities have the potential to cause environmental harm to marine life. The Antarctic seas support the most complex and biologically diverse plant and animal communities of the region. However, very little is known about them and there is certainly not sufficient known to make informed judgements about possible environmental impacts. The animals and plants of the sea-bed are widely accepted as being the most appropriate part of the marine ecosystem for indicating disturbance caused by local sources. Attached sea-bed organisms have a fixed spatial relationship with a given place so they must either endure conditions or die. Once lost from a site recolonisation takes some time, as a consequence the structure of sea-bed communities reflect not only present conditions but they can also integrate conditions in the past. In contrast, fish and planktonic organisms can move freely so their site of capture does not indicate a long residence time at that location. Because sea-bed communities are particularly diverse they contain species with widely differing life strategies, as a result different species can have very different levels of tolerance to stress; this leads to a range of subtle changes in community structure as a response to gradually increasing disturbance, rather than an all or nothing response. This project will examine sea-bed communities near our stations to determine how seriously they are affected by human activities. This information will be used to set priorities for improving operational procedures to reduce the risk of further environmental damage. The fields in this dataset are: Species Site Benthic % Planktonic % Depth (cm) Age (years) Radiocarbon Age Corrected Age Benthic Index

  • Sediment samples were collected with an Eckamn grab from four locations within the Windmill Islands (Herring Island, O'Connor Island, Shannon Bay and Brown Bay). A weekly sampling program was performed over a 10 week period, however not all locations could be accessed each time due to sea-ice conditions. All samples were collected at an 8 m water depth. Preliminary analysis of fortnightly samples are presented here. Diatom data are given as relative abundances of benthic diatom species. The abbreviations used to identify species are explained in the accompanying file sp_list. This work was completed as part of ASAC project 1130 (ASAC_1130) and project 2201 (ASAC_2201). Public summary from project 1130: Algal mats grow on sea floor in most shallow marine environments. They are thought to contribute more than half of the total primary production in many of these areas, making them a critical food source for invertebrates and some fish. We will establish how important they are in Antarctic marine environments and determine the effects of local sewerage and tip site pollution. We will also investigate the impact on the algal mats of the additional UV radiation which results from the ozone hole. Public summary from project 2201: As a signatory to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty Australia is committed to comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment. This protocol requires that activities in the Antarctic shall be planned and conducted on the basis of information sufficient to make prior assessments of, and informed judgements about, their possible impacts on the Antarctic environment. Most of our activities in the Antarctic occur along the narrow fringe of ice-free rock adjacent to the sea and many of our activities have the potential to cause environmental harm to marine life. The Antarctic seas support the most complex and biologically diverse plant and animal communities of the region. However, very little is known about them and there is certainly not sufficient known to make informed judgements about possible environmental impacts. The animals and plants of the sea-bed are widely accepted as being the most appropriate part of the marine ecosystem for indicating disturbance caused by local sources. Attached sea-bed organisms have a fixed spatial relationship with a given place so they must either endure conditions or die. Once lost from a site recolonisation takes some time, as a consequence the structure of sea-bed communities reflect not only present conditions but they can also integrate conditions in the past. In contrast, fish and planktonic organisms can move freely so their site of capture does not indicate a long residence time at that location. Because sea-bed communities are particularly diverse they contain species with widely differing life strategies, as a result different species can have very different levels of tolerance to stress; this leads to a range of subtle changes in community structure as a response to gradually increasing disturbance, rather than an all or nothing response. This project will examine sea-bed communities near our stations to determine how seriously they are affected by human activities. This information will be used to set priorities for improving operational procedures to reduce the risk of further environmental damage. The fields in this dataset are: Species Site Abundance Benthic Date Location