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HELICOPTER

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  • The dataset submitted here is 'Sea-ice freeboard derived from airborne laser scanner'. Between 2007 and 2012, the Australian Antarctic program operated a scanning LiDAR system and other scientific instruments for sea-ice geophysical surveys in East Antarctica. For example see Lieser et al. [2013] for the 2012 survey. The dataset here provides the sea-ice freeboard (i.e. elevation above sea level) along various helicopter flight lines of the 2012 survey in the sea-ice zone between 113 degE and 123 degE. The data collection was based on: - Riegl LMS Q240i-60 scanning LiDAR, measuring sea ice elevation above the WGS84 reference ellipsoid; - Hasselblad H3D II 50 camera, taking aerial photographs at about 13 cm resolution every 3-5 seconds (older digital camera used in 2007); - inertial navigation and global positioning system, OxTS RT-4003. The following geophysical corrections were applied to the sea-ice elevations to derive the sea-ice freeboard: - geoid correction (from the EGM2008 Earth gravity model); - mean ocean dynamic topography correction (from the DTU Space model - DTU10MDT); - ocean tide correction (from the Earth and Space Research CATS2008 Antarctic tide model); - atmospheric pressure (inverse barometer effect) correction from ECMWF data (4-year average) and ship-board underway observations. The geophysical corrections have been validated along selected flight lines by extracting ocean surface elevations from leads between ice floes as identified in the aerial photography. Contained in this dataset are the following files: - a netCDF file for 8 selected flights of the 2012 survey containing sea-ice freeboard values; - a postscript file for 4 of the 8 selected flights showing the residuals from the applied geophysical corrections. These 4 flights were selected on the basis of having a good spread of observable leads along the entire flight line that enabled the extraction of ocean surface elevations.

  • This dataset contains sea ice surface brightness temperatures using a portable passive-microwave radiometer operating at 36Ghz-H,V mounted to the undercarriage of a Squirrel helicopter during SIPEX 2, 2012. This radiometer is the same sensor as satellite passive-microwave radiometer AMSR-E and AMSR2. Our passive-microwave radiometer is launched on the same helicopter as Jan Lieser's (RAPPAL), so please see the "SIPEX-2 RAPPLS Surveys (Radar, Aerial Photography, Pyrometer, and Laser Scanning system)" metadata file for details of the aircraft. The RAPPLS dataset also contains track (GPS position) and altitude data, which can be used in conjunction with this dataset. The CSV files in this dataset are the raw files as output by the sensor. These raw data files show only the relevant parameters (time and brightness temperatures).

  • This dataset comprises oblique aerial photographs of multiple Adelie penguin breeding sites in East Antarctica. The photographs were taken using hand-held digital cameras from fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters used by the Australian Antarctic Program. The aircraft flew at or above the minimum wildlife approach altitude of 750 m with a horizontal offset distance from the site of approximately 500-600m. The date and exact location of the aircraft when each photo was taken is embedded in the EXIF data of each photo. All photographs that were taken are included despite varying image quality due to environmental conditions, camera type and altitude. Generally an attempt was made to photograph the entire breeding site (usually an island, occasionally an outcrop of continental rock) with a series of zoomed, overlapping photos. Sometimes this was not possible when the site was large, and in these cases the overlapping photos covered the locations where colonies were known to exist from previous survey work. In some cases a site was over-flown at an altitude of 1200m so that a single photo of the entire site could be taken. These photos are useful in piecing together the detailed photos. The database of potential Adelie penguin breeding habitat in Southwell et al. (2016a) was used to associate photos to a particular breeding site and structure how the photos are stored. The breeding site database has a unique identifying code of every site of potential breeding habitat in East Antarctica, and the sites are aggregated into sub-groups and then groups. The file structure in which the photos are stored has a combination of ‘group’ and ‘split-year breeding season’ at the top level (eg VES 2015-16 contains all photos in group VES (Vestfold Hills and islands) taken in the 2015-16 breeding season). Within each group-year folder are sub-folders for each breeding site where photos were taken (eg IS_72276 is Gardner Island in the VES group). If an overview photo was taken there are separate sub-folders for overview and detailed photos in the site sub-folder. These data also superseded an earlier dataset of 2009-2016 data - https://data.aad.gov.au/metadata/records/AAS_4088_Adelie_oblique_photos Please refer to the Seabird Conservation Team Data Sharing Policy for use, acknowledgement and availability of data prior to downloading data.

  • Occupancy surveys in November 2008 (Southwell and Emmerson 2013) found a total of 13 Adelie penguin breeding sites in the Rauer Group. The boundaries of breeding sub-colonies at 12 of these sites were subsequently mapped from vertical aerial photographs taken for abundance surveys on 21-23 November 2009. The remaining breeding site (IS_72922) was photographed obliquely from a helicopter using a hand-held camera on 20 December 2010. Colony boundaries for this site were drawn and digitised by eye. Please refer to the Seabird Conservation Team Data Sharing Policy for use, acknowledgement and availability of data prior to downloading data.

  • Occupancy surveys in November 2008 (Southwell and Emmerson 2013) found a total of 31 Adelie penguin breeding sites off the Vestfold Hills. The boundaries of breeding sub-colonies at 26 of these sites were subsequently mapped from vertical aerial photographs taken for abundance surveys on 18-21 November 2009. Two breeding sites were photographed obliquely from a helicopter using a hand-held camera on the 13 December 2012. Colony boundaries for these 2 sites were drawn and digitised by eye. Please refer to the Seabird Conservation Team Data Sharing Policy for use, acknowledgement and availability of data prior to downloading data.

  • These data have been superseded by a more recent dataset, described here - https://data.aad.gov.au/metadata/records/AAS_4088_Oblique_Aerial_Photos This dataset comprises oblique aerial photographs of multiple Adelie penguin breeding sites in East Antarctica. The photographs were taken using hand-held digital cameras from fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters used by the Australian Antarctic Program. The aircraft flew at or above the minimum wildlife approach altitude of 750 m with a horizontal offset distance from the site of approximately 500-600m. The date and exact location of the aircraft when each photo was taken is embedded in the EXIF data of each photo. All photographs that were taken are included despite varying image quality due to environmental conditions, camera type and altitude. Generally an attempt was made to photograph the entire breeding site (usually an island, occasionally an outcrop of continental rock) with a series of zoomed, overlapping photos. Sometimes this was not possible when the site was large, and in these cases the overlapping photos covered the locations where colonies were known to exist from previous survey work. In some cases a site was over-flown at an altitude of 1200m so that a single photo of the entire site could be taken. These photos are useful in piecing together the detailed photos. The database of potential Adelie penguin breeding habitat in Southwell et al. (2016a) was used to associate photos to a particular breeding site and structure how the photos are stored. The breeding site database has a unique identifying code of every site of potential breeding habitat in East Antarctica, and the sites are aggregated into sub-groups and then groups. The file structure in which the photos are stored has a combination of 'group' and 'split-year breeding season' at the top level (eg VES 2015-16 contains all photos in group VES (Vestfold Hills and islands) taken in the 2015-16 breeding season). Within each group-year folder are sub-folders for each breeding site where photos were taken (eg IS_72276 is Gardner Island in the VES group). If an overview photo was taken there are separate sub-folders for overview and detailed photos in the site sub-folder. Please refer to the Seabird Conservation Team Data Sharing Policy for use, acknowledgement and availability of data prior to downloading data.

  • Occupancy surveys in November 2008 (Southwell and Emmerson 2013) found a total of 31 Adelie penguin breeding sites off the Vestfold Hills. The boundaries of breeding sub-colonies at 26 of these sites were subsequently mapped from vertical aerial photographs A further two breeding sites (IS_72295 and McCallie Rocks_72205) were photographed obliquely from a helicopter using a hand-held camera on 10 January. Colony boundaries for 72295 were drawn and digitised by eye. Colony boundaries for 72295 were sketched onto a rough island polygon from the oblique photo without being rectified. Please refer to the Seabird Conservation Team Data Sharing Policy for use, acknowledgement and availability of data prior to downloading data.

  • Metadata record for data from ASAC Project 378 See the link below for public details on this project. From the abstract of the referenced paper: Observations on five groups of crabeater seals were conducted between 29 October and 17 November 1985 in the Antarctic pack ice near 66 degrees S 50 degrees E, off Enderby Land. The pups studied were born in the last half of October. Two of them increased in weight at a rate of approximately 4.2kg per day. The lactation period was 2-3 weeks and thus is one of the breifest among pinnipeds. Pups decreased in weight after weaning. The only pup visited after it left the natal floe must have been feeding, as it had only lost 2kg in a 10-day period during which it moved 13 km. Molt of lanugo appeared to be influenced by more a pups weight than by whether or not it was weaned.

  • Skin temperature data over the East Antarctic pack ice zone were recorded by the RAPPLS airborne instrument package using a KT-19II infrared pyrometer. The KT-19II infrared pyrometer was manufactured by heitronics, and sees a spectrum of 8-12um. IR and location data were logged to a Windows PC using a serial port logger developed by AAD science technical support. Due to some logging issues, substantial post-processing work was done by the AAD sea ice science group to ensure that recorded temperatures were correctly geolocated. Skin temperature data were not collected on two flights: Alpha [12 September 2007] and Foxtrot [14 September 2007] On two further flights, data were collected but the raw log files were so badly munged that we could not confidently tie locations to temperatures. These were: Tango [30 September 2007] and Uniform [1 October 2007] The data are presented in .csv files for each flight showing time and date. lat, lon, recorded temp [deg K], temp converted to C. To visualise the data, .kmz files that can be viewed in Google Earth or NASA's worldwind virtual globes are provided, one for each flight. Skin temperature is represented by a coloured dot at each measurement point. Clicking on each poijt will show its location and recorded temperature. The description field of each .kmz file provides a colour scale.

  • This data set is the airborne scanning LiDAR of a suite of different instruments deployed during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment (SIPEX) in 2007. Surveys have been flown over sea ice between 110-130 degrees E as part of the Australian Antarctic science project 2901. Public Summary for project 2901 This research will contribute to a large multi-disciplinary study of the physics and biology of the Antarctic sea ice zone in early Spring 2007. The physical characteristics of the sea ice will be directly measured using satellite-tracked drifting buoys, ice core analysis and drilled measurements, with detailed measurements of snow cover thickness and properties. Aircraft-based instrumentation will be used to expand our survey area beyond the ship's track and for remote sampling. The data collected will provide valuable ground-truthing for existing and future satellite missions and improve our understanding of the role of sea ice in the climate system. Project objectives: (i) to quantify the spatial variability in sea ice and snow cover properties over scales of metres to hundreds of kilometres in the region of 110-130 degrees E, in order to improve the accuracy of sea ice thickness estimates from satellite altimetry and polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. (ii) To determine the drift characteristics, and internal stress, of sea ice in the region 110-130 degrees E. (iii) To investigate the relationships between the physical sea ice environment and the structure of Southern Ocean ecosystems (joint with AAS Proposal 2767).