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  • This indicator is no longer maintained, and is considered OBSOLETE. INDICATOR DEFINITION Measurements of sea surface temperature in the Southern Ocean. Measurements are averaged over latitude bands: 40-50 deg S, 50-60 deg S, 60 deg S-continent. TYPE OF INDICATOR There are three types of indicators used in this report: 1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system; 2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system; 3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system. This indicator is one of: CONDITION RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION Australian and Antarctic climate and marine living resources are sensitive to the distribution of ocean temperature. Sea surface values are relatively easy to monitor, and therefore can be used as a relevant indicator of the state of the ocean environment. The information provided by long records of sea surface temperature is needed to detect changes in the Southern Ocean resulting from climate change; to test climate model predictions; to develop an understanding of links between the Ocean and climate variability in Australia; and for sustainable development of marine resources. DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM Spatial scale: Southern Ocean: 40 deg S to the Antarctic continent Frequency: Monthly averages over summer Measurement technique: Measurements of sea surface temperature from Antarctic supply ships. The best spatial coverage of sea surface temperature is provided by satellites, due to extensive cloud cover in the Southern Ocean and biases in the satellite measurement, in situ observations of sea surface temperature are necessary. RESEARCH ISSUES Sea surface temperature has not been previously used as a spatially averaged environmental indicator. Some experimentation with past data are required to define the most appropriate averaging strategy. New technologies like profiling Argo floats need to be exploited to provide better spatial and temporal coverage of temperature in the Southern Ocean. LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS Sea ice extent and concentration Chlorophyll concentrations Sea surface salinity

  • We deployed CTD sensors on five of the SIPEX 2 ice stations for collecting temperature and salinity of the water column under the sea ice. This dataset contains the raw data as outputted from the CTD in Excel format, in English. The dates that the CTD were deployed are in the file names (i.e. 20121023 is October 23, 2012).

  • Australian fishing vessels involved in exploratory fishing for Antarctic toothfish in East Antarctica under the auspices of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) collected data required under their exploratory fishing permit. Conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) loggers were attached to bottom longlines sets to collect data while fishing for Antarctic toothfish in Antarctic waters. The data relates to Objective 2 of the research work required: Collect and utilise environmental data to inform spatial management approaches for the conservation of toothfish, bycatch species and representative areas of benthic biodiversity (CCAMLR 2016). Data were collected on two fishing vessels during the austral summers (December to February) of 2015/16, 2016/17 and 2017/18 in CCAMLR Divisions 58.4.1 and 58.4.2. The data were collected with DST CTD (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth Recorder) from Star-Oddi (Conductivity: 13-50 mS/cm, maximum depth: 2400 m). Files were then downloaded with SeaStar and are available in the original data format. Recordings were made at 5 or 10 second intervals for the duration of up to around 24h, recording data throughout the water column while setting the longline and then while stationary on the sea floor. Each deployment has data on time, temperature (degrees C), salinity (psu), conductivity (mS/cm) and depth (m), and is linked to geographical coordinates. Number of deployments: 2015/16: 34 2016/17: 31 2017/18: 75 CCAMLR (2016) Joint research proposal for the Dissostichus spp. exploratory fishery in East Antarctica (Divisions 58.4.1 and 58.4.2) by Australia, France, Japan, Republic of Korea and Spain. Delegations of Australia, France, Japan, Republic of Korea and Spain. Report to Fish Stock Assessment Working Group, WG-FSA-16/29, CCAMLR, Hobart, Australia. Dates and times in the data files are recorded in UTC. Further information is provided in a pdf document in the download file.

  • This dataset contains iceberg observations collected routinely on Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) by Antarctic expeditioners on a volunteer basis. The observations were made each austral summer from the 1978/1979 season until the 2000/2001 season. Data included voyage number, date, time, latitude, longitude, sea ice concentration, water temperature, total icebergs, number of icebergs in each width category, the width to height ratio of selected larger tabular icebergs. It was been compiled and presented on the web by the Glaciology program of the Antarctic CRC (now ACE CRC).

  • Marine sediments often represent an important reservoir of carbonate minerals that will react rapidly to changing seawater chemistry as a result of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification (the reaction of CO2 with seawater) lowers the saturation state with respect to carbonate minerals and may lead to dissolution of these minerals if undersaturation occurs. There are three main carbonate minerals found in marine sediments: 1. aragonite 2. calcite (also referred to as low-magnesium calcite, containing less than 4mol% MgCO3) 3. high-magnesium calcite (greater than 4 mol% MgCO3) Due to the different structure of these minerals, they have different solubilities with high-Mg calcite the most soluble, followed by aragonite and then calcite. As seawater CO2 increases and the saturation state with respect to carbonate minerals decreases, high-Mg calcite will be the first mineral subject to undersaturation and dissolution. By measuring the carbonate mineral composition of sediments, we can determine which areas are most at risk from dissolution. This information forms an important baseline with which we can assess future climate change. The effect of ocean acidification on carbonates in marine sediments will occur around the world, but due to the lower seawater temperatures in Antarctica, solubility is much lower so the impacts will occur here first. This dataset is a compilation of carbonate mineralogy data from surface sediments collected from the East Antarctic margin. The dataset includes sample metadata, bulk carbonate content, %calcite, % aragonite and mol% MgCO3 (i.e. the magnesium content of high-Mg calcite). This dataset was compiled from new (up to 2020) and archived sediment samples that contacted sufficient carbonates (typically greater than 3% CaCO3)/

  • Data were collected during the 1997-1998 austral summer on voyages by the Aurora Australis and Southern Surveyor. Taken from the abstract of the referenced paper: Oceanographic processes in the subantarctic region contribute crucially to the physical and biogeochemical aspects of the global climate system. To explore and quantify these contributions, the Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) organised the SAZ Project, a multidisciplinary, multiship investigation carried out south of Australia in the austral summer of 1997-1998. Here we present a brief overview of the SAZ Project and some of its major results, as detailed in the 16 papers that follow in this special section. The Southern Ocean plays an important role in the global oceanic overturning circulation and its influence on the carbon dioxide contents of the atmosphere. Deep waters upwelled to the surface are rich in nutrients and carbon dioxide. Air-sea interaction modifies the upwelled deep waters to form bottom, intermediate, and mode waters, which transport freshwater, oxygen, and carbon dioxide into the ocean interior. The overall effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide is a balance between outgassing from upwelled deep waters and uptake via both dissolution in newly formed waters (sometimes referred to as the solubility pump) and the transport of photosynthetically formed organic carbon to depth in settling particles (referred to as the biological pump). Determining the variations in the overturning circulation and the associated carbon fluxes in the past and their response to increased anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide in the future is essential to a full understanding of the controls on global climate. At present the upwelled nutrients are incompletely used. Low light in deep wind-mixed surface layers, lack of the micronutrient iron, and other factors restrict phtyoplankton production so that Southern Ocean surface waters represent the largest high-nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) region in the world.

  • Oceanographic measurements conducted on voyage 1 of the Aurora Australis of the 1999-2000 season. These data comprise CTD (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) and ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) data. These data were collected by Mark Rosenberg. This metadata record was completed by AADC staff when the data were discovered bundled with acoustics data during a data cleaning exercise. Basic information about voyage 1: Polynya study off Mertz Glacier at about 145 deg E. The vessel departed from Port Arthur for the polynya study site without returning to Hobart. The voyage also deployed moorings and delivered biologists (for seal and penguin programs) and a small quantity of essential supplies and mail to Macquarie Island. Leader: Dr Ian Allison Deputy Leader: Dr Tony Worby Cargo Supervisor: Dr Vicky Lytle See the readme files in the downloads for more information.

  • Refer to antFOCE report section 2.3 for deployment, sampling and analysis details. The download file contains an Excel workbook with a series of data spreadsheets - one for each of the Onset Hoboware Tidbit v2 (UTBI-001) temperature loggers that were attached to the outside of various pieces of the underwater experimental infrastructure across the antFOCE site. A Notes spreadsheet is also included with information relevant to the data. Background The antFOCE experimental system was deployed in O'Brien Bay, approximately 5 kilometres south of Casey station, East Antarctica, in the austral summer of 2014/15. Surface and sub-surface (in water below the sea ice) infrastructure allowed controlled manipulation of seawater pH levels (reduced by 0.4 pH units below ambient) in 2 chambers placed on the sea floor over natural benthic communities. Two control chambers (no pH manipulation) and two open plots (no chambers, no pH manipulation) were also sampled to compare to the pH manipulated (acidified) treatment chambers. Details of the antFOCE experiment can be found in the report – "antFOCE 2014/15 – Experimental System, Deployment, Sampling and Analysis". This report and a diagram indicating how the various antFOCE data sets relate to each other are available at:

  • Environmental variables in the region of the Kerguelen Plateau compiled from different sources and provided in the ascii raster format. Mean surface and seafloor temperature, salinity and their respective amplitude data are available on the time coverage 1955-2012 and over five decades: 1955 to 1964, 1965 to 1974, 1975 to 1984, 1985 to 1994 and 1995 to 2012. N/A was set as the no data reference. Future projections are provided for several parameters: they were modified after the Bio-ORACLE database (Tyberghein et al. 2012). They are based on three IPCC scenarii (B1, AIB, A2) for years 2100 and 2200 (IPCC, 4th report).

  • Oceanographic measurements conducted on voyage 6 of the Aurora Australis of the 2000-2001 season. These data comprise CTD (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) and ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) data. These data were collected by Mark Rosenberg. This metadata record was completed by AADC staff when the data were discovered bundled with acoustics data during a data cleaning exercise. Basic information about voyage 6: The voyage will complete a range of Marine Science activities off the Mawson Coast, and off the Amery Ice Shelf before calling at Davis to retrieve summer personnel and helicopters prior to returning to Hobart. Science equipment calibration will be undertaken at Mawson. (Marine Science activities were interrupted when the Aurora Australis was required to provide assistance in the Polar Bird's attempt to reach Casey, complete the station resupply and return to open water.) Leader: Dr Graham Hosie Deputy Leader: Mr Andrew McEldowney See the readme files in the downloads for more information.