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  • Bathymetric Contours and height range polygons of approaches to Davis Station, derived from RAN Fair sheet, Aurora Australis and GEBCO soundings.

  • This dataset contains records of ice thickness and snow thickness from Davis Antarctica. Measurements were attempted on a weekly basis and have been recorded since 1957 and are ongoing, although data have only been archived here until 2002. The observations are not continuous however. The dataset is available via the provided URL. This data were also collected as part of ASAC projects 189 and 741. Logbook(s): Glaciology Davis Sea Ice Logs 1992-1999

  • Recordings were made of adult male and female Weddell seals on the ice during the breeding seasons of 1990 and 1997. The recordings were made near Davis, Antarctica in the Vestfold Hills. The vocalisations made with both the mouth and nostrils closed were classified into call types. These call types are also produced by the seals when underwater. The call classifications were based on those described by Thomas, J.A. and Kuechle,, V.B. (1982, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 72: 1730-1738) and Pahl, B.C., Terhune, J.M. and Burton, H.R. (1997, Aus. J. Zool. 45: 171-187). Nineteen call types were identified. Of these, males made 18 and females made 15. Trills are only made by males and it is likely that a stepped ascending whistle is only made by females. A roar and mew are also potential male-only call types. The data suggest that the Trill vocalisations can be used to indicate the presence of males. This will be useful when recording underwater where the calling seals cannot be observed directly. A description of the types of calls made by Weddell Seals is listed below. SymbolNameDescription OToneConstant-frequency, predominantly sinusoidal call. LGrowlConstant-frequency, broad bandwidth, long call. QWhoopConstant-frequency call with a terminal upsweep. SSqueakBrief call with constant frequency or rising frequency and an irregular waveform. WAWhistle AscendingAscending frequency, sinusoidal waveform. TCTrill Constant-FrequencyNarrow bandwidth trill with a constant-frequency beginning, sinusoidal or frequency-modulated waveform. TTrillNarrow to broad bandwidth, containing a frequency downsweep, greater than 2 seconds. WDWhistle DescendingDescending frequency, sinusoidal waveform (less than 2 seconds). MMewAbruptly descending frequency followed by a long constant-frequency ending. CChugAbruptly descending frequency followed by a brief constant-frequency ending. GGuttural Glug (Grunt)Descending-frequency call that was lower than a Chug and had a brief duration. WAGWhistle Ascending - GruntBrief Ascending Whistle followed by a Guttural Glug (Grunt), the two types alternate in a regular pattern. KKnockAbrupt, brief-duration broadband sound

  • Dimethylsulfide and its precursors and derivatives constitute a major sulfate aerosol source. This dataset incorporates the potential for increased UV radiation effects due to stratospheric ozone depletion over spring and summer in Antarctica, using large-scale incubation systems and 13-14 day incubation periods. Surface seawater (200 micron filtered) from the Davis coastal embayment was incubated during four experiments over the 2002-03 Antarctic Summer. The data incorporates seawater measurements of DMS, DMSP and DMSO over a temporal progression during each incubation experiment. Six polyethylene tanks of varying PAR and UV irradiances were incubated. Water was collected stored and analysed by gas chromatography according to a specific sampling protocol, employed by all investigators associated with the project. The data are organised according to analysis day, with each days calibration data displayed at the top of each sheet. The sample code is followed by GC run number and then the raw count data from the GC. This is calculated to nanomoles DMS, DMSP or DMSO. Sample Codes: Codes for temporal data follow format X.XXXX 1st X gives experiment number, 1 to 4. 2nd X gives sampling day, 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 (will result in digit code for day no. less than 10 3rd X gives tank number relating to irradiance level(one to six) 4th and 5th X is replicate number, (01, 02, 03, DMS), (04, 05,06, DMSP total), (07, 08, 09, DMSP dissolved), (10, 11, 12, DMSO total). The fields in this dataset are: Sample Code Run Number from the GC Counts - GC generated raw data Log Counts - logarithmic conversion of the count data Log -c - logarithmic conversion minus the y-intercept determined by calibration of the GC. (log -c)/m - log -c divided by m, determined by calibration of the GC. ngS anti log - nanograms of Sulfur NaOH - NaOH adjustment ngS/L - adjustment per litre nM-DMSP/L - nanoMol's DMSP per litre nm-DMS/L - nanoMol's DMS per litre September 2013 Update: DMSO was analysed in these experiments according to an adaptation of the sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction method of Andreae (1980). The method has since been superseded and the data here probably displays inaccuracies as a result of the analytical method used. This DMSO data should be treated with caution.

  • Metadata record for data from ASAC Project 2500 See the link below for public details on this project. Public Weekly fast-ice and snow thicknesses from an ongoing long-term time-series together with meteorological data will be used to analyse ice-atmosphere interactions. Interannual changes will be related to climate effects. Various sites at each location will be sampled to resolve the influence of oceanic forcing on the fast-ice growth. Project objectives: Landfast sea ice (fast ice) forms on the near-coastal ocean off each of the three Australian Antarctic stations each autumn. At Mawson and Davis stations this ice cover is generally stable, increasing in thickness throughout the winter to reach its maximum thickness in October or November before decaying and eventually breaking out in late spring or summer [Heil and Allison, 2002a]. At Casey, the third Australian station, the fast-ice cover is very unstable and not suitable for the study proposed here. The fast ice at the proposed measuring sites is stationary all through the austral winter. There is no contribution due to mechanical processes (rafting or ridging) on the thickness evolution of the fast ice at the measuring sites [Heil, 2001]. Its growth and decay, and the annual maximum thickness depend primarily on thermodynamic processes [Heil et al., 1996], which are forced by energy and moisture exchanges at the atmosphere-ice interface, the thickness of the snow cover, and the thermal energy supplied to the underside of the ice from the ocean. Starting in the mid 1950s measurements of the fast-ice thickness and snow cover are available for individual years at Mawson and Davis stations. After quality control the combined record for Mawson includes data from 27 seasons; the Davis record includes 20 seasons [Heil and Allison, 2002a]. However, significant gaps exist in these historic records. The scientific value of a continuous record of fast-ice thickness as a climatic indicator has been recognised and as a consequence the fast-ice and snow measurements at Davis and Mawson have been accepted into the State of the Environment (SOE) reporting scheme by the Australian Antarctic Division. Data from ANARE fast-ice measurements have been included in scientific research (e.g., Mellor [1960], Allison [1981], Heil et al. [1996], or Heil and Allison [2002a]). For example, Heil et al. [1996] designed an inverse 1-dimensional thermodynamic sea-ice model and used historic fast-ice data from Mawson together with meteorological observations to derive the seasonal and interannual variability of the oceanic heat flux at the underside of the fast ice. They showed that the interannual variability identified from the fast-ice data was in agreement with changes in the water-mass properties observed upstream of the fast-ice site. Using the historic data together with data from ongoing measurements this project aims to quantify the local-scale interactions between atmosphere and fast ice, to derive the relative impact of oceanic forcing on the fast-ice evolution, to estimate the small-scale spatial variability of the fast-ice growth, and to explore the connection between fast-ice changes and climate change. In particular we aim: - to extend previous analysis from records of fast-ice observations for Mawson and Davis stations; - to exactly determine the growth-melt cycle of East Antarctic fast ice and its modifications due to changing environmental conditions; - to derive the statistical variability of the fast-ice evolution relative to atmospheric and oceanic forcing; - to evaluate the suitability of fast ice as indicator of changes in the Antarctic environment; - to determine the spatial coherence of fast-ice properties. Contribution of this research to achieving the relevant milestones contained in the Strategic Plan: - Contributions to Key Scientific Output 3: This research aims to derive an assessment of the links between fast-ice variability and Southern Hemisphere environmental conditions from in-situ observations. The annual maximum ice thickness, and the date at which this maximum thickness is reached, reflect the integrated conditions of the local atmospheric and oceanic parameters [Heil, in prep.]. The fast-ice measurements together with concurrent meteorological (and oceanic) observations will allow us to study the direct links of variability in the sea-ice thermodynamics to changes in the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric conditions ("weather" in KSO 3.1). This knowledge will aid our understanding of the interannual and long-term variability of the drifting sea ice, as it will allow us to separate thermodynamic effects from dynamic effects [Heil et al., 1998]. Research outcomes from this study will aid the parameterisation of thermodynamic sea-ice processes in coupled climate models, and will provide an outlook towards statistical parameterisation of fast-ice characteristics within numerical models. - Contributions to Key Scientific Output 4: Using historic data and ongoing measurements this project seeks to build an accurate and ongoing record of measurements of fast-ice and snow properties for the monitoring and detection of change in Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate. Changes identified in the fast-ice thickness or in the occurrence of the annual maximum ice thickness are due to changes in either oceanic or atmospheric heat and/or moisture transfer. Using fast-ice measurements from locations around the Antarctic continent in combination with large-scale atmospheric (and oceanic) data the external impact on the sea ice can be extrapolated. Historic climatologies of interannual variability will be updated and extended. These climatologies will be available to expedition operations, scientific research, etc. Assessment basis: * Completion of field work/primary scientific activity: The requirements of data collection for this project are in line with indicator No. 43 "Fast ice thickness at Davis and Mawson" of the State of the Environment (SOE) reporting scheme. Weekly measurements of fast-ice and snow thicknesses are required for the SOE scheme as well as for this project. Additional data on the freeboard of the ice are easily and quickly obtained during the standard measurements [Heil and Allison, 2002b]. It is worthwhile to emphasise the requirement of a long-term commitment for the field measurements in order to obtain meaningful and statistically significant records of fast-ice observations. * Completion of analysis: The evaluation of individual growth-decay seasons will be undertaken once all fast-ice data as well as all required auxiliary data (mainly meteorological measurements) are available to the CI. Where available, opportunistic oceanographic data will be acquired as part of related research projects. Analysis to assess the interaction between fast ice, atmosphere and ocean will be carried out for each growth-decay season. This will include numerical modelling of the thermodynamic processes in fast-ice growth and decay. For years, when measurements of all external forcing fields (oceanic and atmospheric) have been collected, the parameterisations of the thermodynamic model can be evaluated by comparing the model results with the observed fast-ice thickness and growth rates. Following Heil et al. [1996] the thermodynamic model can be reconfigured for use in the inverse mode, using atmospheric and fast-ice data to calculate the oceanic heat flux at the underside of the ice. Long-term records of changes in the oceanic heat flux are not available and this inverse method (driven with data derived from meteorological and fast-ice measurements) will be able to contribute to our understanding of coastal oceanography by using several measuring sites within a small area. Analysis of the interannual variability of the fast ice and its response to changing environmental conditions will be carried out on the long-term data record. The data will be analysed for long-term signals, and will be evaluated for their statistical significance. * Publication of results: Scientific findings will be written up and submitted for publication as they arise. Publications in high-impact international journals are expected about every 2 years.

  • The ANARE Health Register, which has been in operation since 1987, is designed to gather, store, analyse and report on all health related events occurring in the ANARE population. The principal aims of the project are to: - quantify the occurrence of ill health in Antarctic personnel. - compare the incidence rates with those in the domestic population. - assess any trends in health events. - identify high risk groups, in order to modify conditions accordingly. - assess the role of pre-existing health conditions. - examine the causes of injury. - quantify the procedures performed and drugs administered. The results of all medical consultations are coded according to the International Classification of Diseases and analysed on both a monthly and an annual basis in order to assess any emerging trends. In addition to serving as a long-term data base for epidemiological studies, the Health Register is proving to be a useful tool in the day-to-day operations of the Polar Medicine Branch of the Australian Antarctic Division.

  • Zooplankton grazing experiments using the dilution method have been conducted for 2 months at Davis station and on a weekly basis in order to investigate the relationship between zooplankton grazing rates and DMS production in surface water during the blooming season. Regular water sampling in conjunction with these experiments has been conducted to quantify pigments and phytoplankton populations in the same waters. This work was completed as part of ASAC project 2100 (ASAC_2100). The dataset also includes methods used to obtain the data. The fields in this dataset are: chlorophyll DMS DMSP Pigment Dilution

  • Database Description The files represent the 41 different Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) call types identified at either Mawson, Davis, and/or Casey. They were collected between 60 degrees 49' E and 110o 40' E in longitude, and between 66 degrees 12' S and 68 degrees 34' S in latitude. Each call type name includes two elements. The first is a three-digit number starting at 301 to identify the call type. The second is a one to three-letter code referring to the call category that each type falls into. The 13 different possible call categories are: SymbolNameDescription OToneConstant-frequency, predominantly sinusoidal call. LGrowlConstant-frequency, broad bandwidth, long call. QWhoopConstant-frequency call with a terminal upsweep. SSqueakBrief call with constant frequency or rising frequency and an irregular waveform. WAWhistle AscendingAscending frequency, sinusoidal waveform. TCTrill Constant-FrequencyNarrow bandwidth trill with a constant-frequency beginning, sinusoidal or frequency-modulated waveform. TTrillNarrow to broad bandwidth, containing a frequency downsweep, greater than 2 seconds. WDWhistle DescendingDescending frequency, sinusoidal waveform (less than 2 seconds). MMewAbruptly descending frequency followed by a long constant-frequency ending. CChugAbruptly descending frequency followed by a brief constant-frequency ending. GGuttural Glug (Grunt)Descending-frequency call that was lower than a Chug and had a brief duration. WAGWhistle Ascending - GruntBrief Ascending Whistle followed by a Guttural Glug (Grunt), the two types alternate in a regular pattern. KKnockAbrupt, brief-duration broadband sound (from: Pahl, B.C., Terhune, J.M. and Burton, H.R. 1997). The 41 call types were divided into two sections, the first 33 (301-O to 333-K) being common call types and the last 8 (334-Q to 341-WD) being rare call types. In each call type folder, one to five different samples of each call type are provided. They are identified by a small case letter added at the end of the call type name. Each sample includes both a .WAV audio sample and a .JPG image of the call type spectrogram showing call shape, i.e., changes in call frequency (vertical) over time (horizontal). These call types were used to identify: (a) unique call types or call categories, (b) differences in call type or call category usage (the frequency of occurrence of each call type or category), and (c) differences in call features (number of elements, start frequency, frequency shift and first element duration) among the three stations. The download file also includes a spreadsheet of data and a text file explaining how to interpret the data. Analysis of this dataset is ongoing.

  • From the abstract of the attached paper: Vocal recognition may function as a critical factor in maintaining the phocid mother-pup bond during lactation. For vocal recognition to function, the caller must produce individually distinct calls that are recognised by their intended recipient. Mother-pup vocal recognition has been studied extensively in colonial otariids and appears to be characteristic of this family. Although less numerous, empirical studies of phocid species have revealed a range of recognition abilities. This study investigated whether Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) females produce individually distinct 'pup contact' calls that function during natural pair reunions. Fifteen calls from each of nine females recorded in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica were analysed. One temporal, nine fundamental frequency and five spectral characteristics were measured. Results of the cross-validated Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that mothers produce individually distinct calls with 56% of calls assigned to the correct individual. The probability of achieving this level of discrimination on novel data by chance alone is highly improbable. Analysis of eight mother-pup reunions recorded near McMurdo Sound, Antarctica further demonstrated that these 'pup contact' calls function during natural pair reunions. Behavioural analysis also revealed that pups were chiefly responsible for establishing and maintaining close contact throughout the reunion process. Our study therefore demonstrates that Weddell seal females produce calls with sufficient stereotypy to allow pups to identify them during pair reunions, providing evidence of a functioning mother-pup vocal recognition system. Column A - Row 1: Gives the tag number of the female. - Rows 3-33: The list of acoustic measurements recorded from the spectrograms. - Rows 3-5: Temporal measurements recorded in milliseconds. - Rows 7-12: Frequency measurements recorded from the fundamental frequency. Rows 9-11 were measured at the 1/4, 2/4 and 3/4 temporal positions along the fundamental frequency respectively. - Rows 13-17: Give the number of the frequency band with the most energy at the temporal positions stated (i.e. fundamental frequency band=1, first harmonic=2 etc). - Rows 19-29: List the fundamental frequency measurements, taken at the temporal positions stated, used to calculate Mean frequency (Row 31) and the Coefficient of Frequency Modulation (Row 33) using the formula listed in the publication. - Rows 35 and 36: List the cursor error margins of the acoustic analysis program I used. Columns B-P - Give details of the above mentioned acoustic characteristics for 15 replicate calls from each of the 9 females sampled.

  • Metadata record for data from ASAC Project 2695 See the link below for public details on this project. Variations in the winter extent of sea ice are thought to have profound effects on biological productivity, such as algal growth and the reproduction of Antarctic krill, with subsequent flow-on effects through the food web. This pilot study aims to measure the winter foraging patterns of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) as a first step in investigating their role in the winter sea-ice zone. Our specific objectives are to: 1. Obtain satellite tracks from a sample of adult female Weddell seals 2. Collect diving behaviour (dive depth, duration and frequency) from a sub-set of these seals 3. Collect high precision water temperature data from a subset of these seals These data will enable us to assess the feasibility of including Weddell seals as a candidate species in a long-term study of winter sea-ice and predator performance. This project has now been merged into project number 2794 (ASAC_2794). It also contains data collected as part of project 1171 (ASAC_1171). The download file contains 13 Access Databases containing data from this project. An excel spreadsheet summarising the databases is also included. The data have also been loaded into the Australian Antarctic Data Centre's ARGOS tracking database. The database can be accessed at the provided URL.