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NISKIN BOTTLES

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  • Samples were collected from the East Antarctic margin, aboard the Australian Marine National Facility R/V Investigator from January 14th to March 5th 2017 (IN2017_V01; Armand et al., 2018). This marine geoscience expedition, named the “Sabrina Sea Floor Survey”, focused notably on studying the interactions of the Totten Glacier with the Southern Ocean through multiple glacial cycles. Ten litres seawater samples were collected using a CTD rosette equipped with Niskin® bottle and filtered through a 0.45µm Acropak® capsule filter directly into acid-cleaned 10 L polyethylene jerrycans. Samples were then acidified to pH 2 with 2 mL/L of distilled 6M HCl in a laminar flow hood. These samples were analysed for neodymium (Nd) isotopes, a tracer of ocean circulation. In the home laboratory (IMAS Trace-Metal Lab, UTAS, Hobart, Australia), seawater samples were pre-concentrated using pre-packed Nobias® PA1L (Hitachi Technologies, Japan) chelating resin cartridges following the method of Pérez-Tribouillier et al., (2019). Rare Earth Elements were separated using anion-exchange chromatography (Anderson et al., 2012) and cation-exchange chromatography (Struve et al., 2016). Finally, Nd isotopes were isolated using LN-Spec column chemistry (Pin and Zalduegui, 1997). Purified seawater sample Nd concentrations were checked prior to isotopic analysis using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) at the Central Science Laboratory (UTAS, Hobart, Australia). Nd isotope ratio measurements were then carried out at the Geochemistry Laboratory of the School of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences of Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, using a Thermo Finnigan Triton thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). Data were reduced offline for outlier rejection and corrected using 146Nd/144Nd = 0.7219 for mass fractionation using the exponential law, and 144Sm/147Sm = 0.20667 for the Sm interference correction on mass 144. JNdi standard data produced for two load sizes using two amplifier configurations were identical: 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512110 ± 24 2sd (46 ppm 2rsd, n = 16) for 1 ng loads using 1013Ω amplifiers, vs. 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512112 ± 3 2sd (6 ppm 2rsd, n = 6) for 100 ng loads using 1011Ω amplifiers. The corrected 143Nd/144Nd were normalised to the JNdi standard with the published value of 0.512115 (Tanaka et al., 2000). Nd isotopic compositions are reported as eNd = [(143Nd/144Nd)sample / (143Nd/144Nd)CHUR - 1]x10,000 , where CHUR is the Chondritic Uniform Reservoir with 143Nd/144Nd)CHUR = 0.512638 (Jacobsen and Wasserburg, 1980). References - Anderson R. F., Fleisher M. Q., Robinson L. F., Edwards R. L., Hoff J. A., Moran S. B., van der Loeff M. R., Thomas A. L., Roy-Barman M. and Francois R. (2012) GEOTRACES intercalibration of 230Th, 232Th, 231Pa, and prospects for 10Be. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 10, 179–213. A - Armand L. K., O’Brien P. E., Armbrecht L., Baker H., Caburlotto A., Connell T., Cotterle D., Duffy M., Edwards S., Evangelinos D., Fazey J., Flint A., Forcardi A., Gifford S., Holder L., Hughes P., Lawler K.-A., Lieser J., Leventer A., Lewis M., Martin T., Morgan N., López-Quirós A., Malakoff K., Noble T., Opdyke B., Palmer R., Perera R., Pirotta V., Post A., Romeo R., Simmons J., Thost D., Tynan S. and Young A. (2018) Interactions of the Totten Glacier with the Southern Ocean through multiple glacial cycles (IN2017-V01): Post-survey report. ANU Res. Publ. - Jacobsen S. B. and Wasserburg G. J. (1980) Sm-Nd isotopic evolution of chondrites. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 50, 139–155. - Pérez-Tribouillier H., Noble T. L., Townsend A. T., Bowie A. R. and Chase Z. (2019) Pre-concentration of thorium and neodymium isotopes using Nobias chelating resin: Method development and application to chromatographic separation. Talanta, 1–10. - Pin C. and Zalduegui J. F. S. (1997) Sequential separation of light rare-earth elements , thorium and uranium by miniaturized extraction chromatography: Application to isotopic analyses of silicate rocks. Anal. Chim. Acta 339, 79–89. - Struve T., Van De Flierdt T., Robinson L. F., Bradtmiller L. I., Hines S. K., Adkins J. F., Lambelet M., Crocket K. C., Kreissig K., Coles B. and Auro M. E. (2016) Neodymium isotope analyses after combined extraction of actinide and lanthanide elements from seawater and deep-sea coral aragonite. Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems 17, 232–240. - Tanaka T., Togashi S., Kamioka H., Amakawa H., Kagami H., Hamamoto T., Yuhara M., Orihashi Y., Yoneda S., Shimizu H., Kunimaru T., Takahashi K., Yanagi T., Nakano T., Fujimaki H., Shinjo R., Asahara Y., Tanimizu M. and Dragusanu C. (2000) JNdi-1: A neodymium isotopic reference in consistency with LaJolla neodymium. Chem. Geol. 168, 279–281.

  • Total carbon dioxide and total alkalinity analysis of niskin bottle samples collected on CTD casts. All data have been stored in a single excel file. Measurements were made on the CEAMARC voyage of the Aurora Australis - voyage 3 of the 2008-2008 summer season. See other CEAMARC metadata records for more information.

  • Locations of sampling sites for ASAC project 40/1343 on voyage 3 of the Aurora Australis in the 2001/2002 season. The dataset also contains information on chlorophyll, carotenoids, coccolithophorids and species indentification and counts. The data can be accessed via the Biodiversity Database at the provided URL. From the abstract of the referenced publication: Variations of phytoplankton assemblages were studied in November-December 2001, in surface waters of the Southern Ocean along a transect between the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ; 46.9-64.9 degrees S; 142-143 degrees E; CLIVAR-SR3 cruise). Two regions had characteristic but different phytoplankton assemblages. Nanoflagellates (less than 20 microns) and pico-plankton (~2 microns) occurred in similar concentrations along the transect, but were dominant in the SAZ, Sub-Antarctic Front (SAF), Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and the Inter-Polar Front Zone (IPFZ), (46.9-56.9 degrees S). Along the entire transect their average cell numbers in the upper 70 m of water column, varied from 300,000 to 1,100,000 cells per litre. Larger cells (greater than 20 microns), diatoms and dinoflagellates, were more abundant in the Antarctic Zone-South (AZ-S) and the SIZ (60.9-64.9 degrees S). In AZ-S and SIZ diatoms ranged between 270,000 and 1,200,000 cells per litre, dinoflagellates from 31,000 to 102,000 cells per litre. A diatom bloom was in progress in the AZ-S showing a peak of 1,800,000 cells per litre. Diatoms were dominated by Pseudo-nitzschia spp., Fragilariopsis spp., and Chaetoceros spp. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. outnumbered other diatoms in the AZ-S. Fragilariopsis spp. were most numerous in the SIZ. Dinoflagellates contained autotrophs (eg Prorocentrum) and heterotrophs (Gyrodinium/Gymnodinium, Protoperidinium). Diatoms and dinoflagellates contributed most to the cellular carbon: 11-25 and 17-124 micrograms of carbon per litre, respectively. Small cells dominated in the northern region characterised by the lowest N-uptake and new production of the transect. Larger diatom cells were prevalent in the southern area with higher values of N-uptake and new production. Diatom and nanoflagellate cellular carbon contents were highly correlated with one another, with primary production, and productivity related parameters. They contributed up to 75% to the total autotrophic C biomass. Diatom carbon content was significantly correlated to nitrate uptake and particle export, but not to ammonium uptake, while flagellate carbon was well correlated to ammonium uptake, but not to export. Diatoms have contributed highly to particle export along the latitudinal transect, while flagellates played a minor role in the export. This work was completed as part of ASAC projects 40 and 1343. See also the related metadata record, "Spring Phytoplankton Assemblages in the Southern Ocean Between Australia and Antarctica".

  • Size fractionated chlorophyll a data (total and less than 20 µm) analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Underway samples were taken using a seawater line in the oceanographic lab on RSV Aurora Australis (approx. depth 4 m). CTD samples were taken using Niskin bottles attached to a CTD rosette. Six depths were sampled per station, based on fluorescence profiles from the CTD. Two of the two of six samples always included both near-surface (approximately 10 m) and the depth of the chlorophyll maximum where applicable. HPLC analyses were conducted according to the method of Wright et al. (2010). Column chlorophylls (µg L-1) and integrated chlorophylls (mg m-2) are shown in two separate tabs within the Excel spreadsheet.

  • See the referenced paper for additional details. Sampling. Sampling was conducted on board the RSV Aurora Australis during cruise V3 from 20 January to 7 February 2012. This cruise occupied a latitudinal transect from waters north of Cape Poinsett, Antarctica (65_ S) to south of Cape Leeuwin, Australia (37_ S) within a longitudinal range of 113-115_ E. Sampling was performed as described in ref. 29, with sites and depths selected to provide coverage of all major SO water masses. At each surface station, E250-560 l of seawater was pumped from E1.5 to 2.5m depth. At some surface stations, an additional sample was taken from the Deep Chlorophyll Maximum (DCM), as determined by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements taken from a conductivity, temperature and depth probe (CTD) cast at each sampling station. Samples of mesopelagic and deeper waters (E120-240 l) were also collected at some stations using Niskin bottles attached to the CTD. Sampling depths were selected based on temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen profiles to capture water from the targeted water masses. Profiles were generated on the CTD descent, and samples were collected on the ascent at the selected depths. Deep water masses were identified by the following criteria: CDW 1/4 oxygen minimum (Upper Circumpolar Deep) or salinity maximum (Lower Circumpolar Deep); AABW 1/4 deep potential temperature minimum; AAIW 1/4 salinity minimum 18. The major fronts of the SO, which coincide with strong horizontal gradients in temperature and salinity 19,30, separate regions with similar surface water properties. The AZ lies south of the Polar Front (which was at 51_ S during sampling), whereas the PFZ lies between the Polar Front and the Subantarctic Front. In total, 25 samples from the AZ, PFZ, SAMW, AAIW, CDW and AABW were collected for this study (Fig. 1, Supplementary Data 1). Seawater samples were prefiltered through a 20-mm plankton net, biomass captured on sequential 3.0-, 0.8- and 0.1-mm 293-mm polyethersulphone membrane filters and filters immediately stored at _80 _C31,32. DNA extraction and sequencing. DNA was extracted with a modified version of the phenol-chloroform method 31. Tag pyrosequencing was performed by Research and Testing Laboratory (Lubbock, USA) on a GS FLXb platform (Roche, Branford, USA) using a modification of the standard 926F/1392R primers targeting the V6-V8 hypervariable regions of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes (926wF: 50-AAA-CTY-AAA-KGA-ATT-GRC-GG-30 , 1,392 R: 50-ACG-GGCGGT-GTG-TRC-30). Denoising, chimera removal and trimming of poor quality read ends were performed by the sequencing facility.

  • Purpose of future metagenomic (DNA), metaproteomic (protein) and metatranscriptomic (RNA) analysis: For each sample, two drums (~200L each) of seawater were collected. Samples were taken from CTD sites, and surface samples (2m depth) taken at each of these sites. At most of these CTD sites, a deeper sample was taken according to the location of the DCM at that site. The 200L seawater is pumped through a 20 micron mesh to remove the largest particles, then the biomass is collected on three consecutive filters corresponding to decreasing pore size (3.0 microns, 0.8 microns, 0.1 microns). This is repeated for each sample using the second 200L of seawater to generate duplicates for each sample. The overall aim is to determine the identity of microbes present in the Southern Ocean, and what microbial metabolic processes are in operation. In other words: who is there, and what they are doing. Special emphasis was placed on the SR3 transect. Samples were collected as below. For each sample, a total of six filters were obtained (3x pore sizes, 2x replicates). Each filter is stored in a storage buffer in a 50mL tube, and placed at -80 degrees C for the remainder of the voyage.

  • Oceanographic measurements were collected aboard Aurora Australis cruise au1121, voyage "Marine Science" (i.e. voyage 2.1) 2010/2011, from 4th January to 6th February 2011. The cruise commenced with a full north to south occupation of the CLIVAR/WOCE meridional repeat section SR3, followed by work around the Antarctic continental margin in the region of the Adelie Depression and the former Mertz Glacier ice tongue. A total of 149 CTD vertical profile stations were taken on the cruise, most to within 15 metres of the bottom. Over 2000 Niskin bottle water samples were collected for the measurement of salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients (phosphate, nitrate+nitrite and silicate), oxygen-18, dissolved inorganic carbon (i.e. TCO2), alkalinity, pH, helium, tritium, and biological parameters, using a 24 bottle rosette sampler. Upper water column current profile data were collected by a ship mounted ADCP. Meteorological and water property data were collected by the array of ship's underway sensors. An array of 3 bottom mounted ADCP moorings were deployed near the Adelie Depression, for recovery in the 2012/13 season. Underway data were also collected on this voyage, and are linked to this metadata record at the provided URL. A detailed readme is available as part of the download. Finally, ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) data are also linked, and are in Matlab format.

  • Metadata record for data from ASAC Project 2720 See the link below for public details on this project. The overall objective is to characterise Southern Ocean marine ecosystems, their influence on carbon dioxide exchange with the atmosphere and the deep ocean, and their sensitivity to past and future global change including climate warming, ocean stratification, and ocean ... acidification from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In particular we plan to take advantage of naturally-occurring, persistent, zonal variations in Southern Ocean primary production and biomass in the Australian Sector to investigate the effects of iron addition from natural sources, and CO2 addition from anthropogenic sources, on Southern Ocean plankton communities of differing initial structure and composition. These samples were collected on the SAZ-SENSE scientific voyage of the Australian Antarctic Program (Voyage 3 of the Aurora Australis, 2006-2007 season). SAZ-SENSE VOYAGE AU0703 CTD DATA Oceanographic measurements were collected aboard Aurora Australis cruise au0703 (voyage 3 2006/2007, 17th January to 20th February 2007) as part of the "SAZ-SENSE" experiment south of Tasmania, between 43 degrees and 55 degrees south. A total of 109 CTD vertical profile stations were taken to various depths, focussing chiefly on the upper water column. Over 1300 Niskin bottle water samples were collected for the measurement of salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients (phosphate, nitrate+nitrite, silicate, ammonia and nitrite), dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, particulate organic carbon/nitrogen/silicate, dissolved and particulate barium, thorium, dissolved organic carbon, ammonium, pigments, phytoplankton, bacteria, viruses, diatoms, amino acids, and other biological parameters (list incomplete), using a 24 bottle rosette sampler. Near surface current profile data were collected by a ship mounted ADCP. Data from the array of ship's underway sensors are included in the data set. This report describes the processing/calibration of the CTD and ADCP data, and details the data quality. An offset correction is derived for the underway sea surface temperature and salinity data, by comparison with near surface CTD data.

  • Sampling Samples were collected on board the RSV Aurora Australis between 22 January and 17 February 2016. The cruise surveyed the region south of the Kerguelen Plateau including the Princess Elizabeth Trough and BANZARE Bank in a series of eight transects covering 8165 km. Plankton communities were collected at 45 conductivity temperature depth (CTD) stations and seven additional underway stations, with biological replicates collected at two stations (52 independent sites). Surface water was sampled from 4 plus or minus 2 m depth using the uncontaminated seawater line. Deep Chlorophyll Maximum (DCM, 10-74 m) water samples were obtained using 10 L Niskin bottles mounted on a Seabird 911+ CTD. Plankton communities were size-fractionated by sequentially filtering 10 L seawater through 25 mm 20 micron (nylon) and 5 micron filters (PVDF), and 0.45 micron Sterivex filters (PVDF). Filters were stored frozen at -80 °C. DNA extraction and high-throughput sequencing DNA was extracted from half of each filter using the MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit at the Australian Genome Research Facility (AGRF, Adelaide, Australia; http://www.agrf.org.au). The V4 region of the 18S rDNA (approximately 380 bp excluding primers) was PCR-amplified using universal eukaryotic primers from all extracts and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq v2 (2 x 250 bp paired-end) following the Ocean Sampling Day protocol (Piredda et al. 2017). Amplicon library preparation and high-throughput sequencing were carried out at the Ramaciotti Centre for Genomics (Sydney, Australia). Sequence analysis, OTU picking and assignment followed the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE) workflow (Bissett et al. 2016). Taxonomy was assigned to OTUs based on the PR2 database using the ‘classify.seqs’ command in mothur version 1.31.2 with default settings and a bootstrap cut-off of 60%. OTUs representing any terrestrial contaminants (e.g. human) and samples with low sequencing coverage (less than 7000 reads) were removed from the dataset. The date of sea ice melt for each station was estimated from daily SSM/I-derived sea-ice spatial concentration from the National Snow and Ice Data Centre (NSIDC) at 25 x 25 km resolution. Days since melt was considered to be the number of days between the date on which sea ice concentration first fell below 15% and the date of sampling. Other environmental variables included are in situ chlorophyll a, as an indicator of biological production, and near-surface salinity (mean over the upper 10 m) as an indicator for recent sea ice melt. Both environmental measurements were taken from the associated CTD seawater samples. The surface chlorophyll a in seawater (1-2 L) collected in Niskin bottles was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, provided by Karen Westwood and Imojen Pearce, Australian Antarctic Division, doi:10.4225/15/5a94c701b98a8). Sampling times are given in UTC.

  • This data set contains primary productivity, pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry, and nutrient drawdown numbers associated with the abstract presented below. 14C Primary Productivity Gross column-integrated primary productivity determined through measurement of NaH14CO3 uptake by phytoplankton (1 hour incubations). Primary productivity was modelled from photosynthesis v irradiance curves, chlorophyll profiles, photosynthetically active radiation, and vertical light attenuation. Data for these parameters are also shown. Nutrient Draw-down Data Seasonal depletion of oxidised inorganic nitrogen and silicate in the mixed layer, and production of oxygen. Data was calculated by the subtraction of mixed layer concentrations (uM) from values below the mixed layer. Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry Data Fv/Fm values determined using pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry (PAM). Samples were dark-adapted prior to measurement so that non-photochemical quenching was relaxed. Values provide an indication of cell health. Abstract Primary productivity was measured in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean (30 degrees to 80 degrees E) as part of a multi-disciplinary study during austral summer; Baseline Research on Oceanography, Krill and the Environment, West (BROKE-West Survey, 2006). Gross integrated (0-150 m) productivity rates within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were significantly higher than within the open ocean, with averages of 2110.2 plus or minus 1347.1 and 595.0 plus or minus 283.0 mg C m-2 d-1, respectively. In the MIZ, high productivity was associated with shallow mixed layer depths and increased Pmax up to 5.158 mg C (mg chl a)-1 h-1. High Si:N drawdown ratios in the open ocean (4.1 plus or minus 1.5) compared to the MIZ (2.2 plus or minus 0.79) also suggested that iron limitation was important for the control of productivity. This was supported by higher Fv/Fm ratios in the MIZ (0.50 plus or minus 0.11 above 40 m) compared to the open ocean (0.36 plus or minus 0.08). As well, in the open ocean there were regions of elevated productivity associated with the seasonal pycnocline where iron availability was possibly increased. High silicate drawdown in the north-eastern section of the BROKE-West survey area suggested significant diatom growth and was linked to the presence of the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front (sACCF). However, low assimilation numbers (12.8 to 23.2 mg C mg chl a-1 d-1) and Fv/Fm ratios indicated that cells were senescent with initial growth occurring earlier in the season. In the western section of the survey area within the MIZ, high NO3 drawdown but relatively low silicate drawdown were associated with a Phaeocystis bloom. NO3 concentrations were strongly negatively correlated with column-integrated productivity and chlorophyll biomass which was expected given the requirement for this nutrient by all phytoplankton groups. Regardless, concentrations of both NO3 and silicate were above limiting levels within the entire BROKE-West survey area (N greater than 15.7 micro M, Si greater than 18.3 micro M) supporting the high nutrient low chlorophyll status of the Southern Ocean.