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  • Microscopy imaging of live Antarctic krill using a Leica M205C dissecting stereo-microscope with a Leica DFC 450 camera and Leica LAS V4.0 software. Krill were held in a custom made 'krill trap', details provided in manuscript in section eight of this form. The data are available as a single video file. These data are part of Australian Antarctic Science (AAS) projects 4037 and 4050. Project 4037 - Experimental krill biology: Response of krill to environmental change The experimental krill research project is designed to focus on obtaining life history information of use in managing the krill fishery - the largest Antarctic fishery. In particular, the project will concentrate on studies into impacts of climate change on key aspects of krill biology and ecology. Project 4050 - Assessing change in krill distribution and abundance in Eastern Antarctica Antarctic krill is the key species of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its fishery is rapidly expanding and it is vulnerable to changes in climate. Australia has over a decade of krill abundance and distribution data collected off Eastern Antarctica. This project will analyse these datasets and investigate if krill abundance and distribution has altered over time. The results are important for the future management of the fishery, as well as understanding broader ecological consequences of change in this important species.

  • Metadata record for data from ASAC Project 2547 See the link below for public details on this project. Pue (greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE) samples of nitrate reductase have been isolated from the Antarctic bacterium, Shewanella gelidimarina (ACAM 456T; Accession number U85907 (16S rDNA)). The protein is ~90 kDa (similar to nitrate reductase enzymes characterised from alternate bacteria) and stains positive in an in-situ nitrate reduction (native) assay technique. The protein may be N-terminal blocked, although further sequencing experiments are required to confirm this. This work is based upon phenotyped Antarctic bacteria (S. gelidimarina; S.frigidimarina) that was collected during other ASAC projects. (Refer: Psychrophilic Bacteria from Antarctic Sea-ice and Phospholipids of Antarctic sea ice algal communities new sources of PUFA [ASAC_708] and Biodiversity and ecophysiology of Antarctic sea-ice bacteria [ASAC_1012]). The download file contains 4 scientific papers produced from this work - one of these papers also contains a large set of accession numbers for data stored at GenBank.

  • Trace metal concentrations are reported in micrograms per gram of sediment in core C012-PC05 (64⁰ 40.517’ S, 119⁰ 18.072’ E, water depth 3104 m). Each sediment sample (100-200mg) was ground using a pestle and mortar and digested following an initial oxidation step (1:1 mixture of H2O2 and HNO3 acid) and open vessel acid on a 150 degree C hotplate using 2:5:1 mixture of concentrated distilled HCl, HNO3 and Baseline Seastar HF acid. After converting the digested sample to nitric acid, an additional oxidation step was performed with 1:1 mixture of concentrated distilled HNO3 and Baseline Seastar HClO4 acid. A 10% aliquot of the final digestion was sub-sampled for trace metal analyses. Trace metal concentrations were determined by external calibration using an ELEMENT 2 sector field ICP-MS from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Bremen, Germany) at Central Science Laboratory (University of Tasmania). The following elements were analysed in either low (LR) or medium resolution (MR): Sr88(LR), Y89(LR), Mo95(LR), Ag107(LR), Cd111(LR), Cs133(LR), Ba137(LR), Nd146(LR), Tm169(LR), Yb171(LR), Tl205(LR), Pb208(LR), Th232(LR), U238(LR), Na23(MR), Mg24(MR), Al27(MR), P31(MR), S32(MR), Ca42(MR), Sc45(MR), Ti47(MR), V51(MR), Cr52(MR), Mn55(MR), Fe56(MR), Co59(MR), Ni60(MR), Cu63(MR), Zn66(MR).

  • General description: The associated file contains sediment pigment data from the antFOCE project 4127. Units: all pigment data in ug/g, 0 = below detection limit of HPLC. Sample collection details: At the start and end of the antFOCE experiment, four sediment core samples were taken from inside and outside each chamber or open plot by divers. The top 1 cm of the cores was then removed and placed in the dark, first at -20ºC for 2 hours, then at -80ºC until analysis at the Australian Antarctic division. Pigment analysis Frozen samples were transported under liquid N2 to a freeze drier (Dynavac, model FD-5), in pre-chilled flasks with a small amount of liquid N2 added. Custom made plumbing fitted to the freeze drier enabled samples to be purged with N2 to prevent photo-oxidation up until solvent extraction. Prior to pigment extraction five 2 g stainless steel ball bearings were added to homogenise the freeze dried sediment. The samples were bead beaten for 1 minute (Biospec products). Subsamples (~0.05 g) were immediately transferred to cryotubes with 700 µl of dimethylformamide (DMF) for two hours. Samples were kept at -80ºC and under a safe light (IFORD 902) at all times. All pigment concentrations are standardised to sediment weight. Pigments were extracted with dimethylformamide (DMF 700 µl) over a two hour period at -20ºC. Zirconia beads, and 100 µl of Apo 8 and an internal standard were added to each sub-sample. After a two hour extraction, sub-samples were bead beaten for 20 seconds and then placed in a centrifuge with filter cartridge inserts for 14 minutes at 2500 rpm at -9ºC to separate the solvent from the sediment. The supernatant was transferred into to a vial and placed in a precooled rpHPLC autosampler. The rpHPLC system used is described in Hodgson et al. (1997). Pigment detection was at 435, 470 and 665 nm for all chlorophylls and carotenoids, with spectra from 300–700 nm being collected every 0.2 seconds. Pigment identification was carried out using a combination of rpHPLC and normal phase HPLC retention times, light absorbance spectra and reference standards (see Hodgson et al., 1997). These techniques assisted in the accurate identification of pigments and their derivatives to a molecular level and enabled several pigment derivatives to be analysed. The HPLC was previously calibrated with authentic standards and protocols outlined in SCOR (1988). Data set headers: (A)Treatment: Example code 4127_SOP7_6-1-15_PlotB_R1, = prodject code_Standard Operating Procedure(SOP) used to collect samples(see antFOCE parent file)_ Date_Chamber/plot(A,B,C,D)_replicate core within Chamber/plot(1,2,3) (B) BB carot= BB caroten, type of pigment detected by HPLC. See Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more details. (C) Chl c1 = Chlorophyll derivatives see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (D) Chl c2 = Chlorophyll derivatives see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (E) Chl c3 = Chlorophyll derivative see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (F) Chla = Chlorophyll a see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (G) Ddx =Diadinoxanthin see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information (H) dtx = Diatoxanthin pigment. see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information (I) epi = Chlorophyll epimer pigment. see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (j) Fuc = Fucoxanthin pigment. see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (k) Gyro2 = Gyroxanthin pigment. see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (L) Pras = Prasanthin pigment. see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (m) Zea = Zeaxanthin pigment. see Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. and Mantoura, R.F.C. eds., 2005. Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods. Unesco Pub for more information. (n) Date = Samples taken at the start of antFOCE experiment or at the end (o) chamber = The antFOCE chamber (A,B,C,D) (p) Treatment = The associated pH level in chambers (Acidified ~7.8, Control ~8.2) (Q) Position = Samples were taken within chambers and outside chambers (outside, inside) (r) rep= Subsamples were taken within each chamber/position (R1=replicate one, R1-R4) Spatial coordinates: 66.311500 S, 110.514216 E Dates: between 1/12/2014 and 1/3/2015 Timezone:UTC+11

  • This video is supplementary data for the publication entitled 'Internal physiology of live krill revealed using new aquaria techniques and mixed optical microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging techniques'. The video is high resolution microscopy video of a live krill captured in the krill containment trap placed within the water bath. File size: 1.8 GB, 32 s duration. The optical microscopy was carried out using a Leica M205C dissecting stereomicroscope with a Leica DFC 450 camera and Leica LAS V4.0 software to collect high-resolution video. The experimental krill research project is designed to focus on obtaining life history information of use in managing the krill fishery - the largest Antarctic fishery. In particular, the project will concentrate on studies into impacts of climate change on key aspects of krill biology and ecology.

  • This metadata record was created in error and a DOI assigned to it before the error was noticed. The correct metadata record is available here: https://data.aad.gov.au/metadata/records/AAS_4015_Krill_Gonad_Transcriptome with the DOI doi:10.26179/5cd3c8fec9ad8.

  • The impact of freeze-thaw cycling on a ZVI and inert medium was assessed using duplicated Darcy boxes subjected to 42 freeze-thaw cycles. This dataset consists of particle sizing during the decommissioning process of the experiment. Two custom built Perspex Darcy boxes of bed dimensions: length 362 mm, width 60 mm and height 194 mm were filled with a mixture of 5 wt% Peerless iron (Peerless Metal Powders and Abrasive, cast iron aggregate 8-50 US sieve) and 95 wt% glass ballotini ground glass (Potters Industries Inc. 25-40 US sieve). This ratio of media was selected to ensure that most aqueous contaminant measurements were above the analytical limit of quantification (LOQ) for feed solutions at a realistic maximum Antarctic metal contaminant concentration at a realistic field water flow rate. All solutions were pumped into and out of the Darcy boxes using peristaltic pumps and acid washed Masterflex FDA vitron tubing. Dry media was weighed in 1 kg batches and homogenised by shaking and turning end over end in a ziplock bag for 1 minute. To ensure that the media was always saturated, known amounts of Milli-Q water followed by the homogenised media were added to each box in approximately 1 cm layers. 20 mm of space was left at the top of the boxes to allow for frost heave and other particle rearrangement processes. On completion of freeze-thaw cycling and solution flow (refer to Statham 2014), an additional series of assessments was conducted. The media from between the entry weir and the first sample port was removed in five approximately 400 g samples of increasing depth. This procedure was repeated between the last sample port and the exit weir. These samples were left to dry in a fume cabinet before duplicated particle sizing using a Endcotts minor sieve shaker.

  • This dataset is a document describing the Pelagic Tunicates of the Southern Ocean. It lists all the known Southern Ocean species and with illustrated diagrams provides a guide to their taxonomic identification. The document is available for download as a pdf from the provided URL.

  • Metadata record for data from AAS Project 3127 See the link below for public details on this project. Bacteria in marine environments have been found to be able to partially support growth by using light to generate energy in a non-photosynthetic process. This is possible due to a special protein called proteorhodopsin. It is hypothesised that formation of proteorhodopsin has evolved to cope with extreme lack of nutrients. The goal is to determine the significance of proteorhodopsins in the productivity of Southern Ocean microbial communities. This includes determination of proteorhodopsin distribution, presence in seawater and sea-ice samples using molecular techniques, and determination of how important environmental factors (light, nutrient availability, temperature) may drive its synthesis and activity. Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report Project objectives: 1. Determine incidence of proteorhodopsins in Southern Ocean water and sea-ice derived bacteria (Year 1) and other Antarctic aquatic environments (Year 2 and 3). 2. Determine whether proteorhodopsins contribute to food web energy budgets. 3. Determine how proteorhodopsin contributions are influenced by physicochemical features of the environment including light availability, temperature and nutrients. Progress against objectives: Proteorhodopsin is a light harvesting membrane protein that has been found recently to occur in 30-70% of marine bacterial cells. The role of this protein is uncertain but believed to be highly important in energy and nutrient budgets in food webs as it is capable of generating a proton gradient. Amongst a cultured set of Antarctic bacteria we have discovered many PR-producing species. These include many Antarctic lake species. Research is ongoing to determine affect of light on the physiology of these bacteria in particular the genome sequenced species Psychroflexus torquis, an extremely cold-adapted resident of Antarctic sea-ice. 1. Completed screen of Antarctic bacterial collection for proteorhodopsin (PR) genes using PCR-based approaches 2. Proteomic-based analysis of PR-bearing sea-ice species Psychroflexus torquis is currently ongoing 3. Light/dark defined growth-based experiments determining conditions leading to biomass enhancement are ongoing

  • 1st Experiment 24/11/16 ************************************************************************************************ See 2016_11_24_Miseq_Sheet 1. Sanger Sequencing Plate #4 - 25mg of Tissue was extracted by AGRF. DNA was diluted to 5ng/ul. Samples were sanger sequenced with 16SAR (Palumbi) primer. If they failed, I used COI3 cocktail (Ivanova). FASTA sequences from Plate 4 are in the folder named Sanger Sequence FASTA Plate #4. Naming - Plate position, primer, sample ID. ie reater than A1-16S-AR_1952. 2. DNA and Tissue Pools of Plate 4 We wanted to explore the possibility of using a metabarcoding approach. For metabarcoding we re-examined specimens already identified from sanger sequences. We mixed DNA from many samples (n=16 or n=96) and did a single amplification (i.e. up to 96 DNA extractions processed in a single-tube marker amplification). We also took it a step further and tried blending a set amount of tissue from many fish specimens (n=16 or n=96) and did a single DNA extraction on the tissue mixes (i.e. a single DNA extraction and single tube amplification for up to 96 samples). See 2016_11_24_Miseq_Sheet for DNA and Tissue Pool mixes. 3. Miseq Run 16 samples were ran on a 250bp pe read. Each sample was amplified with 3 primer sets - COI (please note one dual labelled set was used), 12s and 16s (Primers listed on 2016_11_24_Miseq_Sheet). They were diluted 1:10 and illumina sequencing adaptors were added (please note I used same I7 and I5 per sample, so they had to be sorted on amplicon). 2016_11_24_fastq_files has the data from miseq. and 2016_11_24_merged_fastq_files has the merged files. For some unknown reason 16s tissue produced no data. 2nd Experiment 04/07/17 ************************************************************************************************* 1. DNA Extractions Plate #1, 2 and 3 - 25mg of Tisse was extracted by AGRF. DNA was diluted to 5ng/ul. We also used Plate #4 from experiment above. See Plate Layout for sample allocation. 2. Tissue and DNA Pools DNA pools were from Plate 1, 2, 3 and 4. Tissue Mixes were from Plate 2 and 4 only. We wanted to explore the possibility of using a metabarcoding approach. We mixed DNA from many samples (n=16 or n=96) and did a single amplification (i.e. up to 96 DNA extractions processed in a single-tube marker amplification). We also took it a step further and tried blending a set amount of tissue from many fish specimens (n=16 or n=96) and did a single DNA extraction on the tissue mixes (i.e. a single DNA extraction and single tube amplification for up to 96 samples). See plate layout for DNA and Tissue Pool mixes. 3. Miseq Run 577 samples were sequenced in a 250bp pe read. See 2017_07_04_Miseq Sheet. Plate 1, 2 3 and 4 were all sequenced with Leray Primers.(Please note I accidentally amplified the first half of plate one with one pair of dual labelled COI primers, index on miseq sheet). I also made a plate of tissue and DNA pools (see plate layout for DNA and Tissue Pool mixes) and amplified those with 4 primers (primer sequences on miseq sheet) COI (individual dual labelled primers, 1st round index are on miseq sheet) 12s Fish 16s Chordate NADH The last 4 samples with 12s were to add to database as there are no 12S sequences for those species on genbank. See PCR recipes for annealing temp and cycling etc I accidentally put the marker under sample name so the original sample ID was lost and miseq gave it a new name (name from miseq output) and then another new name from merged file. Finally I gave them a unique sample ID. See name file if you need more information. 2017_07_04 has the data from miseq. and 2017_07_04_merged_fastq_files has the merged files. Samples were clustered using zero radius OTU's. 4.Results See Results database. The spreadsheet has all of the possible name combinations from the run. It also contains the Haul ID and date, time, lat, long etc. There is a morph taxa ID which refers to what the observer has identified the fish and then there is Seq_Taxa_ID which is the sequencing result. There is also a list of primers that were used to identify the fish. 0 indicated that the primer wasnt used, 1 indicates it was. The second tab has all of the info for the samples that failed. *************************************************************************************************