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EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS > SEWAGE DISPOSAL

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  • These are the scanned electronic copies of field and lab books used at Davis Station, and Kingston between 2009 and 2011 as part of ASAC (AAS) project 3217 - Environmental assessment of Davis sewage treatment plant up-grade.

  • This metadata record contains an Excel workbook of current meter data and a report derived from this data detailing an analysis of the mean and variability of the longshore component of the current using observations from four current meters, and, simple modelling of the effluent outfall using a model originally developed for shoreline discharges from the oil industry. The Excel workbook contains data from 4 of the 6 analogue Anderra current that meters were deployed in the area in front of Davis Station in early 2010. Data was not retrievable from meters CM4 and CM6. The meters were deployed at approximately 5 m below the surface. Refer to the Davis STP reports lodged under metadata record Davis_STP for current meter locations and deployment and retrieval details. Background of the Davis STP project - Refer to the Davis STP reports lodged under metadata record Davis_STP.

  • This metadata record contains an Excel file containing total petroleum hydrocarbon data from analysis of marine sediments collected at Davis Station from December 2009 to March 2010. Refer to the Davis STP reports lodged under metadata record Davis_STP for the full Davis Sewage Treatment Project methods and result details. Davis STP - Total petroleum hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons were extracted from a 10g sub-sample of homogenised wet soil by tumbling overnight with a mixture of 10 mL of deionised water, 10 mL of dichlormethane (DCM), and 1 mL of DCM spiked with internal standards: 254 mg/L bromoeicosane; 55.2 mg/L 1,4 dichlorobenzene; 51.2 mg/L p-terphenyl; 52.2 mg/L tetracosane-d50; and 255 mg/L cyclo-octane. Samples were then centrifuged for 5 minutes at 1000 rpm, this was repeated a further 3 times to ensure complete separation of the organic and aqueous fractions. The DCM fraction was then extracted and placed into GC-vials. Extracts were analysed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection (GC-FID; Agilent 6890N with a split/splitless injector) and an auto-sampler (Agilent 7683 ALS). Separation was achieved using an SGE BP1 column (25 m x 0.22 mm ID, 0.25 µm film thickness). 1 µL of extract was injected (5:1 pulsed split) at 310° C and 17.7 psi of helium carrier gas. After 1.3 minutes, the carrier gas pressure was adjusted to maintain constant flow at 3.0 mL/min for the duration of the oven program. The oven temperature program was started at 36 °C (held for 3 minutes) and increased to 320 °C at 18 °C/min. Detector temperature was 330 °C. TPH concentrations were determined using a calibration curve, generated from standard solutions of special Antarctic blend diesel (SAB), and standard diesel. TPH was measured using the ratio of the total detector response of all hydrocarbons to the internal standard peak response. List of compounds analysed - C8-C28 individual hydrocarbon components - Naphthalene - Biomarkers (phytanes) - Total signal and area, and resolved compounds from C8 to C40, over specific ranges (e.g. C9-C18, SAB) Reporting limit - 0.3 mg.kg-1 on a dry matter basis (DMB) for individual components - 2.5-160 mg.kg-1 on a dry matter basis (DMB) for various calculated ranges Analytical uncertainty - Analytical precision: (a) 3 samples extracted and analysed in triplicate, (b) 3 extracts analysed by GC-FID in duplicate; only 1 of each set greater than RL (160): (a) RSD = 2%, (b) RSD = 0.4% - Site heterogeneity: reproducibility (RSD) of mean data from site replicate samples (mostly duplicates) was 24% (mean, SD 20%, range 4-60%, n=8) - From the limited data on reproducibility summarised above, it can be concluded that site heterogeneity contributes most to the uncertainty of the TPH data for the site locations. Background of the Davis STP project Refer to the Davis STP reports lodged under metadata record Davis_STP.

  • The present data set corresponds to the genotypes for seven microsatellite markers for three Antarctic sea urchin species of the genus Abatus. Sea urchin individuals were collected in five sites separated by up to 5 km in the near-shore area surrounding Davis Station in the Vestfold Hills Region, East Antarctica. For each microsatellite loci, the size of each allele was scored (in base pairs) using the CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis System software v.8.0. Fragments were separated on an automated sequencer (CEQ 8000, Beckman Coulter) in the Central Science Laboratory at University of Tasmania.

  • Data on the morphological and reproductive responses of 4 species of wild caught Abatus heart urchins (A. nimrodi, A. shackletoni, A. ingens, and A. philippii) to sewage effluent from the Davis station sewage outfall. Between 19 and 21 individuals of each species were collected from three sites close to the station. The Sewage outfall site, which acted as the impacted site for the study, and two reference sites, one at Airport Beach, and a second and Heidemann Bay. Morphological measurements taken from each individual were length, width, height, anterior length, and posterior length. A qualitative assessment of the calcareous test of each individual was conducted to determine the presence of any abnormalities (as per Land 2005, PhD thesis) in the individuals morphology. Reproductive data collected were a gonadosotic index (calculated by dividing the gonal mass of a individual by the total mass of that individual). And for females morphological measurements (length and width) of each brood pouch were taken, and the type and number of juveniles in each pouch was counted. Data available: In the spreadsheet provided a description of measurements is given in the first tab. All morphological and reproductive data is presented in the second tab. In full these are; Parent Barcode (for tracking purposes) Individual Barcode (for tracking purposes), date collected (date the animal was collected) date processed (date data were collected) site (site the animal came from) species (nimrodi, shackletoni, ingens, or philippii) sex (male or female) samples taken for other projects (morphology, genetics, histology) Morphological measurements (length, width, height, posterior length, anterior length, all recorded in millimetres) Any of a possible 6 abnormalities observed. Brood pouch morphometrics (length and width in millimeters of each of the 4 brood pouches for a female) Reproductive fitness, being the number of young at any of 3 stages in each of the 4 brood pouches and the total number of juveniles produced by the adult female. Total Wet Mass (mass of the entire animal recorded in grams) Gonad Wet Mass (mass of the gonad of an individual) Gonadosmotic Index (measure of reproductive fitness, and is the Gonad Wet Mass divided by the Total Wet Mass of each individual) A blank datasheet used to record the data is contained within the third tab. The two final tabs are appendices used to aid the qualitative assessments. The first (Appendix 1) gives photo descriptions of each of the known abnormalities in Abatus sp (Adapted from Lane (2005) PhD thesis). The second (Appendix 2) gives photo descriptions of each of the developmental stages of juveniles in Abatus sp.

  • This document details the analytical methods used to determine a range of chemical and physical properties of the wastewater effluent from Davis Station and of marine sediments collected from shallow waters (5 to 25 m) around the Vestfold Hills and Davis Station. This was done as part of a study examining the environmental impacts of the Davis Station wastewater outfall in early 2010. See Davis_STP metadata record for further information on the project.

  • Metadata record for data from AAS (ASAC) Project 2933. See the child records for access to the datasets. Public While it is generally thought that Antarctic organisms are highly sensitive to pollution, there is little data to support or disprove this. Such data is essential if realistic environmental guidelines, which take into account unique physical, biological and chemical characteristics of the Antarctic environment, are to be developed. Factors that modify bioavailability, and the effects of common contaminants on a range of Antarctic organisms from micro-algae to macro-invertebrates will be examined. Risk assessment techniques developed will provide the scientific basis for prioritising contaminated site remediation activities in marine environments, and will contribute to the development of guidelines specific to Antarctica. Project objectives: 1. Develop and use toxicity tests to characterise the responses of a range of Antarctic marine invertebrates, micro- and macro-algae to common inorganic and organic contaminants. 2. To examine factors controlling bioavailability and the influence of physical, chemical and biological properties unique to the Antarctic environment on the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants to biota. 3. To compare the response of Antarctic biota to analogous species in Arctic, temperate and tropical environments in order to determine the applicability of using toxicity data and environmental guidelines developed in other regions of the world for use in the Antarctic. 4. Develop a suite of standard bioassay techniques using Antarctic species to assess the toxicity of mixtures of contaminants (aqueous and sediment-bound) including tip leachates, sewage effluents and contaminated sediments. 5. To establish risk assessment models to predict the potential hazards associated with contaminated sites in Antarctica to marine biota, and to develop Water and Sediment Quality Guidelines for Antarctica to set as targets for the remediation of contaminated marine environments. Taken from the 2008-2009 Progress Report: Progress against objectives: Due to logistical constraints, only a short field season (5 weeks) was conducted at Casey in 2008/09 and no berths were allocated solely to this project. A team of 6 scientists worked together on an intensive marine sampling program under TRENZ (AAS project 2948, CI Stark) in support of 5 different AAS projects, including this one. The lack of adequate personnel dedicated to this project and the limited time that we were allocated on station hindered progress and meant that no experiments on Antarctic organisms were able to be conducted in situ. The airlink was however successfully used to transport marine invertebrates collected at Casey and held in seawater at 0degC back to Hobart on 3 separate flights. These invertebrates are currently being maintained in the cold water ecotoxicology aquarium facilities at Kingston. Once they are sorted and where possible established in cultures, they will be used in toxicity tests. Progress against specific objects are: 1) Much effort and time has been put towards the husbandry and culture of the collected Antarctic marine invertebrates. Some species are now successfully breeding in the laboratory providing new generations and sensitive juvenile stages of invertebrates to work with in toxicity tests. This culturing capability, if able to be developed, will hugely extend opportunities for carrying out research for this project, by giving us access to live material over the winter months and during summer when berths to or space on station in Antarctica is limited. Toxicity tests using some of the common amphipods and gastropods collected in the 0809 season at Casey will commence shortly at Kingston. 2) Toxicity tests to commence shortly using invertebrates collected in the 0809 season now being maintained in the Ecotoxicology aquarium will focus on interactions and potentially synergistic effects of contaminants along with other environmental stressors including increases in temperature and decreases in salinity associated with predicted environmental changes in response to climate change. 3) A phD candidate has recently started on this project and is currently reviewing all available literature on the response of Antarctic species to contaminants and environmental stressors in comparison to related species from lower latitudes. 4) Invertebrates collected in the 0809 season that are being maintained in the Ecotoxicology aquarium will be screened in toxicity tests to commence shortly. Methods will then be developed using the most suitable and sensitive species to form the basis of standard bioassay procedures that can be used to test mixtures such as sewage effluents and tip leachates in the upcoming season. 5) The establishment of risk assessment models and Environmental Quality Guidelines for Antarctica is a long term goal of this project when data from the first 4 objectives can be synthesised and hence has not yet been addressed. Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report: Progress against objectives: Objectives 1 and 2: Metal effects on the behaviour and survival of three marine invertebrate species were investigated during the field season. Two replicate toxicity tests were conducted on the larvae of sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri where combined effects of metal (copper and cadmium) and temperature (-1, 1 and 3 degrees Celsius) were to be investigated on developmental success. However, due to lower than optimal fertilisation success, both tests were terminated before any meaningful results could be derived. Four tests were conducted on the adult amphipod, Paramorea walkeri. Two replicate tests investigated combined metal (copper and cadmium) and temperature (-1, 1 and 3 degrees Celsius) effects, and two tests investigated the effects of copper, cadmium, lead, zinc and nickel exposure at ambient sea water temperature of -1 degrees Celsius. One test was conducted with the micro-gastropod Skenella paludionoides being exposed to copper, cadmium, lead, zinc and nickel at ambient sea water temperature. The larvae of bivalve Laternula sp. were also investigated as a potential test organism for metal toxicity. Strip spawning was conducted a number of times, however, this technique did not provide adequate levels of fertilisation success and as such, the toxicity tests on larval development were not completed. Objective 3: A phD candidate working on this project is in the process of compiling a review of all available date on the response of Antarctic species to contaminants and environmental stressors in comparison to related species from lower latitudes. This literature review will form a major component of her thesis' first chapter Objective 4: Methods for Standard bioassay procedures were developed using the most suitable and sensitive species, the amphipod Paramoera walkeri and the microgastropod Skenella paludionoides. These standard tests were then used to assess the toxicity of sewage effluent at Davis Station (in conjunction with project 3217). Objective 5: Toxicity tests on sewage effluent were conducted as part of a risk assessment to determine hazards associated with the current discharge. The determined toxicity of the sewage effluent will provide a basis for guideline recommendations on the required level of treatment and on what constitutes an adequate or 'safe' dilution factor for dispersal of the effluent discharge to the near shore marine environment.

  • This metadata record will contain the results of analyses of tissue samples from Antarctic Rock-cod (Trematomus bernacchii) collected at sites around Davis station to determine wastewater exposure and sub-lethal impact. AAS Project 4177. The results of metal analysis, stable isotope analysis and images of histological analysis of fish from Davis Station are in this dataset. Sample sites and fish collection Antarctic Rock-cod were collected at 6 sites from Prydz Bay near Davis Station East Antarctica, during the 2012/13 summer. Approximately twenty fish were collected from each site by line and in box traps from four sites along a (9 km) spatial gradient starting from the Davis Station wastewater outfall, southward 0km (within 250m of the point of discharge), 1km, 4km and 9km, in the direction of the predominant current. Additionally, two reference sites were sampled 9 km and 16 km north of the discharge point. Once collected, fish were immediately returned to the Davis Station laboratories and sacrificed individually by immersion in an Aqui-s solution (~15ml/L). Once no signs of life were present (approximately 5 min), fish length and weight were measured. Tissues were preserved in various ways for a number of analyses to be conducted at a later date. Stable Isotope analysis. Davis Station Laboratory Dorsolateral muscle tissue from the left side of each individual was removed, placed in aluminium foil and frozen at -20 degrees C for later analysis. Tissue processing A section of frozen tissue was removed (approximately 1 x 1 cm cubed), placed into a clean, acid washed glass crucible and cut into small pieces. This was then dried at 80 degrees C for 48 h. Tissue from each fish was carefully removed and placed into separate 2 ml Eppendorf tubes, each containing an washed, dried stainless steel ball bearing and the lids closed tightly to ensure no moisture could enter. Tissue was crushed into a fine powder by shaking in a Tissue II Lyser. Ball bearings were removed from vials and crushed tissue samples were sent to Cornell University Stable Isotope laboratory for d13C (carbon stable isotope) and d15N (nitrogen stable isotope) analysis. Stable isotope ratios are expressed in parts per thousand units using the standard delta (d) notation d13C and d15N. Data Set This data set consists of an Excel spreadsheet containing raw data of Nitrogen and Carbon Stable Isotope analysis from 6 sites in the Prydz Bay area of East Antarctica. It includes site distance and direction from wastewater discharge point. The file name code stable isotope analysis is; Project number_Season_Taxa_analysis type AAS_4177_12_13_Trematomus_Isotopes Project number : AAS_4177 Season : 2012/13 season Taxa: Trematomus Analysis type: Stable Isotope Metal analysis. Davis Station Laboratory Dorsolateral muscle tissue from the right side of each individual was removed, placed in a plastic zip lock bag and frozen at -20 degrees C for later analysis. Tissue processing 10g of frozen muscle tissue was sent to Advanced Analytical Australia for metal analysis of a suite of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Zn, Al, Ni, Pb). Data Set This data set consists of an Excel spreadsheet containing raw data of metal analysis (mg/kg) from 6 sites in the Prydz Bay area of East Antarctica. It includes site distance and direction from wastewater discharge point. The file name code stable isotope analysis is; Project number_Season_Taxa_analysis type AAS_4177_12_13_Trematomus_Metals Project number : AAS_4177 Season : 2012/13 season Taxa: Trematomus Analysis type: Metal analysis Histological analysis Davis Station Laboratory A small piece of a number of fish tissues (gill, liver, spleen, head kidney, gonad), were collected immediately after death of the fish to ensure no degradation of tissue and preserved in 10% seawater buffered formalin for later analysis Tissue processing Each piece of tissue was dehydrated in ascending grades of ethanol (30-100%), cleared in Histolene and embedded in paraffin wax. Tissue was sectioned using a HM 32 Micron microtome at 4 microns. Standard haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain was used to stain all tissue sections. Each section was examined blind (i.e. the examiner did not know the field location of the tissue samples) using a Zeiss AxioPlan microscope at 100-400 x magnification. Histological analysis is ongoing. Data Set This data set consists of a pdf file with images of normal and potential sub-lethal histological alterations. The file name code stable isotope analysis is; Project number_Season_Taxa_analysis type AAS_4177_12_13_Trematomus_Histology Project number : AAS_4177 Season : 2012/13 season Taxa: Trematomus Analysis type: Histopathology

  • Metadata record for data expected from ASAC Project 996 See the link below for public details on this project. The study investigated the effects of the small sewage outfall on algal epifauna in the isthmus area. No impacts were detected and patterns of community structure were tentatively explained by local differences in wave exposure gradients. From the abstract to the referenced paper: As part of a wider programme investigating the effects of human presence on Antarctic and sub-Antarctic ecosystems, this study evaluated the impact of the small sewage outfall at Macquarie Island on the epifauna living within turfs of the intertidal red alga Chaetangium fastigiatum. Sampling was conducted during early December (austral summer) in both 1996 and 1997 at six sites, two sites within each of three adjacent bays. The site closest to the outfall was 3m from the point of discharge. Data analyses at the population and community levels failed to demonstrate a significant effect of the outfall. Small scale spatial patterns, probably related to wave exposure, and inter-annual variation in recruitment, are suggested as the main causes of variation in patterns of epifaunal dominance during the study. The site codes used in this dataset are: GCS - Garden Cove South GCN - Garden Cove North GBS - Bay 1 South GBN - Bay 1 North CS - Bay 2 North CN - Bay 2 South At each site 5 replicates were taken. The numbers are total individuals of each species that were found in each Chaetangium sample. This is a basic, though standard, species-abundance matrix. The fields in this dataset are: Species Site Year

  • Metadata record for data from AAS (ASAC) Project 2933. See the child records for access to the datasets. Public While it is generally thought that Antarctic organisms are highly sensitive to pollution, there is little data to support or disprove this. Such data is essential if realistic environmental guidelines, which take into account unique physical, biological and chemical characteristics of the Antarctic environment, are to be developed. Factors that modify bioavailability, and the effects of common contaminants on a range of Antarctic organisms from micro-algae to macro-invertebrates will be examined. Risk assessment techniques developed will provide the scientific basis for prioritising contaminated site remediation activities in marine environments, and will contribute to the development of guidelines specific to Antarctica. Project objectives: 1. Develop and use toxicity tests to characterise the responses of a range of Antarctic marine invertebrates, micro- and macro-algae to common inorganic and organic contaminants. 2. To examine factors controlling bioavailability and the influence of physical, chemical and biological properties unique to the Antarctic environment on the bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants to biota. 3. To compare the response of Antarctic biota to analogous species in Arctic, temperate and tropical environments in order to determine the applicability of using toxicity data and environmental guidelines developed in other regions of the world for use in the Antarctic. 4. Develop a suite of standard bioassay techniques using Antarctic species to assess the toxicity of mixtures of contaminants (aqueous and sediment-bound) including tip leachates, sewage effluents and contaminated sediments. 5. To establish risk assessment models to predict the potential hazards associated with contaminated sites in Antarctica to marine biota, and to develop Water and Sediment Quality Guidelines for Antarctica to set as targets for the remediation of contaminated marine environments. Taken from the 2008-2009 Progress Report: Progress against objectives: Due to logistical constraints, only a short field season (5 weeks) was conducted at Casey in 2008/09 and no berths were allocated solely to this project. A team of 6 scientists worked together on an intensive marine sampling program under TRENZ (AAS project 2948, CI Stark) in support of 5 different AAS projects, including this one. The lack of adequate personnel dedicated to this project and the limited time that we were allocated on station hindered progress and meant that no experiments on Antarctic organisms were able to be conducted in situ. The airlink was however successfully used to transport marine invertebrates collected at Casey and held in seawater at 0degC back to Hobart on 3 separate flights. These invertebrates are currently being maintained in the cold water ecotoxicology aquarium facilities at Kingston. Once they are sorted and where possible established in cultures, they will be used in toxicity tests. Progress against specific objects are: 1) Much effort and time has been put towards the husbandry and culture of the collected Antarctic marine invertebrates. Some species are now successfully breeding in the laboratory providing new generations and sensitive juvenile stages of invertebrates to work with in toxicity tests. This culturing capability, if able to be developed, will hugely extend opportunities for carrying out research for this project, by giving us access to live material over the winter months and during summer when berths to or space on station in Antarctica is limited. Toxicity tests using some of the common amphipods and gastropods collected in the 0809 season at Casey will commence shortly at Kingston. 2) Toxicity tests to commence shortly using invertebrates collected in the 0809 season now being maintained in the Ecotoxicology aquarium will focus on interactions and potentially synergistic effects of contaminants along with other environmental stressors including increases in temperature and decreases in salinity associated with predicted environmental changes in response to climate change. 3) A phD candidate has recently started on this project and is currently reviewing all available literature on the response of Antarctic species to contaminants and environmental stressors in comparison to related species from lower latitudes. 4) Invertebrates collected in the 0809 season that are being maintained in the Ecotoxicology aquarium will be screened in toxicity tests to commence shortly. Methods will then be developed using the most suitable and sensitive species to form the basis of standard bioassay procedures that can be used to test mixtures such as sewage effluents and tip leachates in the upcoming season. 5) The establishment of risk assessment models and Environmental Quality Guidelines for Antarctica is a long term goal of this project when data from the first 4 objectives can be synthesised and hence has not yet been addressed. Taken from the 2009-2010 Progress Report: Progress against objectives: Objectives 1 and 2: Metal effects on the behaviour and survival of three marine invertebrate species were investigated during the field season. Two replicate toxicity tests were conducted on the larvae of sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri where combined effects of metal (copper and cadmium) and temperature (-1, 1 and 3 degrees Celsius) were to be investigated on developmental success. However, due to lower than optimal fertilisation success, both tests were terminated before any meaningful results could be derived. Four tests were conducted on the adult amphipod, Paramorea walkeri. Two replicate tests investigated combined metal (copper and cadmium) and temperature (-1, 1 and 3 degrees Celsius) effects, and two tests investigated the effects of copper, cadmium, lead, zinc and nickel exposure at ambient sea water temperature of -1 degrees Celsius. One test was conducted with the micro-gastropod Skenella paludionoides being exposed to copper, cadmium, lead, zinc and nickel at ambient sea water temperature. The larvae of bivalve Laternula sp. were also investigated as a potential test organism for metal toxicity. Strip spawning was conducted a number of times, however, this technique did not provide adequate levels of fertilisation success and as such, the toxicity tests on larval development were not completed. Objective 3: A phD candidate working on this project is in the process of compiling a review of all available date on the response of Antarctic species to contaminants and environmental stressors in comparison to related species from lower latitudes. This literature review will form a major component of her thesis' first chapter Objective 4: Methods for Standard bioassay procedures were developed using the most suitable and sensitive species, the amphipod Paramoera walkeri and the microgastropod Skenella paludionoides. These standard tests were then used to assess the toxicity of sewage effluent at Davis Station (in conjunction with project 3217). Objective 5: Toxicity tests on sewage effluent were conducted as part of a risk assessment to determine hazards associated with the current discharge. The determined toxicity of the sewage effluent will provide a basis for guideline recommendations on the required level of treatment and on what constitutes an adequate or 'safe' dilution factor for dispersal of the effluent discharge to the near shore marine environment.