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EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > COMMUNITY DYNAMICS > COMMUNITY STRUCTURE

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  • Experimental Set-up: An unreplicated, 6-level, dose-response experiment was conducted on a natural microbial community over a range of pCO2 levels (343, 506, 634, 953, 1140 and 1641 micro atm). Seawater was collected on the 19th November 2014 approximately 1 km offshore from Davis Station, Antarctica (68 degrees 35' S, 77 degrees 58' E) from an area of ice-free water amongst broken fast-ice. The seawater was collected using a thoroughly rinsed 720L Bambi bucket slung beneath a helicopter and transferred into a 7000 L polypropalene reservoir tank. Six 650 L polyethene tanks (minicosms), located in a temperature-controlled shipping container, were immediately filled via teflon lined house via gravity with an in-line 200 micron Arkal filter to exclude metazooplankton. The minicosms were simultaneously filled to ensure they contained the same starting community. The ambient water temperature at time of collection was -1.0 degrees C and the minicosms were maintained at a temperature of 0 degrees C plus or minus 0.5 degrees C. At the centre of each minicosm there was an auger shielded for much of its length by a tube of polythene. This auger was rotated at 15 rpm to gently mix the contents of the tanks. Each minicosm tank was covered with an acrylic air-tight lid to prevent pCO2 off-gasing outside of the minicosm headspace. The minicosm experiment was conducted between the 19th November and the 7th December 2014. Initially, the contents of the tanks were given a day to equibrate to the minicosms. This was followed by a five day acclimation period to increasing pCO2 at low light (0.8 plus or minus 0.2 micro mol m-1 s-1), allowing cell physiology to acclimated to the pCO2 increase (days 1-5). During this period the pCO2 was progressively adjusted over five days to the target level for each tank (343 - 1641 micro atm). Thereafter pCO2 was adjusted daily to maintain the pCO2 level in each treatment (see carbonate chemistry section below). Following acclimation to the various pCO2 treatments light was progressively adjusted to 89 plus or minus 16 micro mol m-2 s-1 at a 19 h light:5 h dark cycle. The community was incubated and allowed to grow for a further 10 days (days 8-18) with target pCO2 adjusted back to target each day (see carbonate chemistry section below). For a more detailed description of minicosm set-up, lighting and carbonate chemistry see; Davidson, A. T., McKinlay, J., Westwood, K., Thomson, P. G., van den Enden, R., de Salas, M., Wright, S., Johnson, R., and Berry, K.:Enhanced CO2 concentrations change the structure of Antarctic marine microbial communities, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 552, 93-113, 2016. Deppeler, S. L., Petrou, K., Westwood, K., Pearce, I., Pascoe, P., Schulz, K. G., and Davidson, A. T.: Ocean acidification effects on productivity in a coastal Antarctic marine microbial community, Biogeosciences, 2017. Light microscopy sampling and analysis: Samples from each minicosm were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 for microscopic analysis to determine protistan identity and abundance. Approximately 960 mL were collected from each tank, on each day. Samples were fixed with 20 40 mL of Lugol's iodine and allowed to sediment out at 4 degrees C for greater than or equal to 4 days. Once cells had settled the supernatant was gently aspirated till approximately 200 mL remained. This was transferred to a 250 mL measuring cylinder, again allowed to settle (as above), and the supernatant gently aspirated. The remaining 20 mL. This final 20 mL was transferred into a 30 mL amber glass bottle. All samples were stored and transported at 4 degrees C to the Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart, Australia for analysis. Lugols-fixed and sedimented samples were analysed by light microscopy between July 2015 and February 2017. Between 2 to 10 mL (depending on cell-density) of lugols-concentrated samples was placed into a 10 mL Utermohl cylinder (Hydro-Bios, Keil) and the cells allowed to settle overnight. Due to the large variation in size and taxa, a stratified counting procedure was employed to ensure both accurate identification of small cells and representative counts of larger cells. All cells greater than 20 microns were identified and counted at 20x magnification; those less than 20 microns at 40x magnification. For larger cells (greater than 20 microns), 20 randomly chosen fields of view (FOV) at 3.66 x 106 microns2 counted to gain an average cells per L. For smaller cells (less than 20 microns), 20 randomly chosen FOVs at 2.51 x 105 microns2 were counted. Counts were conducted on an Olympus IX 81 microscope with Nomarski interference optics. Identifications were determined using (Scott and Marchant, 2005) and FESEM images. Autotrophic protists were distinguished from heterotrophs via the presence of chloroplasts and based on their taxonomic identity. Electron microscopy sampling and analysis: A further 1 L was taken on days 0, 6, 13 and 18 for analysis by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). 25 These samples were concentrated to 5 mL by filtration over a 0.8 micron polycarbonate filter. Cells were resuspended, the concentrate transferred to a glass vial and fixed to a final concentration of 1% EM-grade gluteraldehyde (ProSciTech Pty Ltd). All samples were stored and transported at 4 degrees C to the Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart, Australia for analysis. Gluteraldehyde-fixed samples were prepared for FESEM imaging using a modified polylysine technique (Marchant and Thomas, 30 1983). In brief, a few drops of gluteraldehyde-fixed sample were placed on polylysine coated cover slips and post-fixed with OsO4 (4%) vapour for 30 min, allowing cells to settle onto the coverslips. The coverslips were then rinsed in distilled water and dehydrated through a graded ethanol series ending with emersion in 100% dry acetone before being critically point dried in a Tousimis Autosamdri-815 Critical Point Drier. The coverslips were mounted onto 12.5 mm diameter aluminium stubs and sputter-coated with 7 nm of platinum/palladium in a Cressington 208HRD coater. Imaging of stubs was conducted by JEOL JSM6701F FESEM and protists identified using (Scott and Marchant, 2005). All units are in cells per L estimates from individual field of view counts (FOV) Protistan taxa and functional group descriptions and abbreviations: Autotrophic Dinoflagellate (AD) - including Gymnodinium sp., Heterocapsa and other unidentified autotrophic dinoflagellates Bicosta antennigera (Ba) Chaetoceros (Cha) - mainly Chaetoceros castracanei and Chaetoceros tortissimus but also other Chaetoceros present including C. aequatorialis var antarcticus, C. cf. criophilus, C. curvisetus, C. dichaeta, C. flexuosus, C. neogracilis, C. simplex Choanoflagellates (except Bicosta) (Cho) - mainly Diaphanoeca multiannulata but also Parvicorbicula circularis and Parvicorbicula socialis present in low numbers Ciliates (Cil) - mostly cf. Strombidium but other ciliates also present Discoid Centric Diatoms greater than 40 microns (DC.l) - unidentified centrics of the genera Thalassiosira, Landeria, Stellarima or similar Discoid Centric Diatoms 20 to 40 microns (DC.m) - unidentified centrics of the genera Thalassiosira, Landeria, Stellarima or similar Discoid Centric Diatoms less than 20 microns (DC.s) - unidentified centrics of the genera Thalassiosira Euglenoid (Eu) - unidentified Fragilariopsis greater than 20 microns (F.l) - mainly Fragilariopsis cylindrus, some Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and potentially some Fragilariopsis curta present in very low numbers Fragilariopsis less than 20 microns (F.s) - mainly Fragilariopsis cylindrus, and potentially some Fragilariopsis curta present in very low numbers Heterotrophic Dinoflagellates (HD) - including Gyrodinium glaciale, Gyrodinium lachryma, other Gyrodinium sp., Protoperidinium cf. antarcticum and other unidentified heterotrophic dinoflagellates Landeria annulata (La) Other Centric Diatoms (OC) - Corethronb pennatum, Dactyliosolen tenuijuntus, Eucampia antarctica var recta, Rhizosolenia imbricata and other Rhizosolenia sp. Odontella (Od) - Odontella weissflogii and Odontella litigiosa Other Flagellates (OF) - Dictyocha speculum, Chrysochromulina sp., unknown haptophyte, Phaeocystis antarctica (flagellate and gamete forms), Mantoniella sp., Pryaminmonas gelidicola, Triparma columaceae, Triparma laevis subsp ramispina, Geminigera sp., Bodo sp., Leuocryptos sp., Polytoma sp., cf. Protaspis, Telonema antarctica, Thaumatomastix sp. and other unidentified nano- and picoplankton Other Pennate Diatoms (OP) - Entomonei kjellmanii var kjellmanii, Navicula gelida var parvula, Nitzschia longissima, other Nitzschia sp., Plagiotropus gaussi, Pseudonitzschia prolongatoides, Synedropsis sp. Phaeocystis antarctica (Pa) - colonial form only Proboscia truncata (Pro) Pseudonitzschia subcurvata (Ps) Pseudonitzschia turgiduloies (Pt) Stellarima microtrias (Sm) Thalassiosira antarctica (Ta) Thalassiosira ritscheri (Tr) *.se = standard error for mean cell per L estimate ie. Tr.se = standard error for the mean cells per L for Thalassiosira ritscheri based on individual FOV estimates as described in methods above. Davis Station Antarctica Experiment conducted between 19th November and 7th December 2014.

  • Aerial photography (Linhof) of penguin colonies was acquired over the Svenner Islands (Eric Woehler). The penguin colonies were traced, then digitised (John Cox), and saved as DXF-files. Using the ArcView extension 'Register and Transform' (Tom Velthuis), the DXF-files were brought into a GIS and transformed to the appropriate islands.

  • Aerial photography (Linhof) of penguin colonies was acquired over the Windmill Islands (Eric Woehler). The penguin colonies were traced, then digitised (John Cox), and saved as DXF-files. Using the ArcView extension 'Register and Transform' (Tom Velthuis), The DXF-files were brought into a GIS and transformed to the appropriate islands. Data conforms to SCAR Feature Catalogue which can be searched (refer to link below).

  • Aerial photography (35mm film) of penguin colonies was acquired over some islands north east of Brattstrand Bluff islands (Eric Woehler). The penguin colonies were traced, then digitised (John Cox), and saved as DXF-files. Using the ArcView extension 'Register and Transform' (Tom Velthuis), The DXF-files were brought into a GIS and transformed to the appropriate islands. Update May 2015 - This dataset has been rename from "Brattstrand Bluff penguin GIS dataset" to "Islands NE of Brattstrand Bluff penguin GIS dataset" to better describe the location of the colonies. The penguin colonies are on a small group of islands approximately 12km north east of Brattstrand Bluff. Latitude 69.148 south and longitude 77.268 east. The Data Centre does not have a copy of the original photographs or described GIS data. In May 2015, the Data Centre has attached the following to this record: The DXF file produced by John Cox by digitising the aerial photography. Note this document is not georeferenced. Four photographs taken in 2009 by Barbara Wienecke, Seabird Ecologist, showing penguin colonies on these islands. A shapefile exists of the digitised colonies. The digitising by Ursula Harris, Australian Antarctic Data Centre, was done by georeferencing the DXF drawing over unprocessed Quickbird Image 05NOV15042413-M1BS-052187281010_01_P002. It was done in two parts, the largest island and then the two smaller islands. This allowed for better matching. The accuracy of this data is unknown.

  • A GPS survey of seabirds on Heard Island during the Australian Antarctic Program's 2000/01 expedition. This layer is stored as two datasets (polygon and point) in the Geographical Information System (GIS). Polygon data represent flying bird and penguin colony extents. Point data represent nest locations and the location of the observation point for flying birds and penguins.

  • This dataset is a document describing the Ctenophores of the Southern Ocean. It lists all the known species and with illustrated diagrams provides a guide to their taxonomic identification. The document is available for download as a pdf from the provided URL.

  • This dataset is a document describing the Chaetognaths of the Southern Ocean. The synonymy, diagnostic characters, geographical and bathymetric distribution of each species is given together with an illustration of body, head and a seminal vesicle, and a distribution map. The document is available for download as a pdf from the provided URL.

  • Two 16S rDNA clone libraries, one from a Brown Bay sample and one from an O'Brien Bay sample were generated. These samples were originally collected as part of ASAC project 868 and the microbiology of the samples is now being investigated as part of ASAC 1228. Two data files are included in the download. Both are in "fasta" format, a text-based format for representing either nucleotide sequences or peptide sequences, in which base pairs or amino acids are represented using single-letter codes. Further information about the dataset can also be found in the referenced paper.

  • Aerial photography (Linhof) of penguin colonies was acquired over the Holme Bay (Eric Woehler). The penguin colonies were traced, then digitised (John Cox), and saved as DXF-files. Using the ArcView extension 'Register and Transform' (Tom Velthuis), The DXF-files were brought into a GIS and transformed to the appropriate islands. Data conforms to SCAR Feature Catalogue which can be searched (refer to link below).

  • A GPS survey of seabirds on Heard Island during the Australian Antarctic Program's 2003/04 expedition. This layer is stored as two datasets (point and polygon) in the Geographical Information System (GIS). Data represent flying bird and penguin colony extents and nesting sites.