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  • This dataset was collected as part of an honours project by Jessica Wilks at Macquarie University (submitted May 2012). The samples analysed were taken from an expedition conducted by Dr Leanne Armand in 2011 as part of the KEOPS2 mission (KErguelen: compared study of the Ocean and the Plateau in Surface water). During this mission 7 locations (A3-1, A3-2, E1-3, E14W2, NPF-L, R2 and TEW) around the Kerguelen Plateau were sampled for seafloor sediment. Each attached spreadsheet represents the data from one of these locations. Three tubes of sediment were taken for each location. The data within each spreadsheet is separate for the three tubes. After the tubes of seafloor sediment were processed to remove organic material and carbonates (leaving nothing but siliceous material, primarily diatoms) slides were made with a small amount of material, three slides per tube of sediment. Diatoms were identified using a light microscope at 40x magnification. Approximately 400 frustules were counter per tube (ie per set of 3 slides) in order to represent the diversity of the species present. The number of each species or subspecies of diatom are tallied in the spreadsheets attached. Species identifications follow Armand et al 2008. Other information in the attached spreadsheets includes the seafloor depth at the point of sampling, the distance from the Kerguelen shoreline at the point of sampling, the amount of suspended material used on each slide, the number of field of view (at 40X) viewed to count the quota of 400 diatom frustules, and the calculated number of frustules/ gram of dry sediment weight. Counting protocol: centric frustules were counted only when 1) more than half of the frustule was intact; and 2) the frustule was clearly identifiable. If 1) but not 2) then the frustule was counted as "unidentified centric". For Rhizosolenia spp, frustules were couned if the apex was present and identifiable, otherwise it was counted as "R. unknown". Thalassiothrix and Tricotoxon were only counted if one end was present and identifiable. The number was later divided by 2, to give the number of complete frustules. Abbreviations: A. spp= Actinocyclus As. spp= Asteromphalus Az. spp= Azpeita Ch. spp= Chaetoceros Co. spp= Coscinodiscus C. spp= Cocconeis D. spp= Dactyliosen E. spp= Eucampia F. spp= Fragilariopsis O. spp= Odontella P. spp= Paralia Po. spp= Porosira R. spp= Rhizosolenia Th. spp= Thalassionema T. spp= Thalassiosira Locations A3-1, Kerguelen Plateau: -50.65333 S, 72.04 E A3-2, Kerguelen Plateau: -50.64722 S, 72.07 E E1-3, Kerguelen Plateau: -48.11667 S, 71.96667 E E14W2, Kerguelen Plateau: -48.7775 S, 71.43833 E NPF-L, Kerguelen Plateau: -48.62417 S, 74.81222 E R2, Kerguelen Plateau: -50.39389 S, 66.69944 E TEW, Kerguelen Plateau: -49.16083 S, 69.83389 E

  • This dataset was collected as part of an honours project by Jessica Wilks at Macquarie University (submitted May 2012). The samples analysed were taken from an expedition conducted by Dr Leanne Armand in 2011 as part of the KEOPS2 mission (KErguelen: compared study of the Ocean and the Plateau in Surface water). During this mission 7 locations (A3-1, A3-2, E1-3, E14W2, NPF-L, R2 and TEW) around the Kerguelen Plateau were sampled for seafloor sediment. This study involved identification of over 50 species of diatoms as part of a species assemblage/ distribution study. A photograph of each diatom encountered in this study is included in the attached plates.

  • Diatom data from IN2017_V01: These data were generated by Amy Leventer (aleventer@colgate.edu) and undergraduate students at Colgate University, including Isabel Dove, Meghan Duffy, and Meaghan Kendall. All questions regarding the specifics of these data should be directed to Amy Leventer. These data are based on samples collected during research cruise IN2017_V01 of the RV Investigator, co-chief scientists, Leanne Armand and Phil O’Brien. The IN2017-V01post-cruise report is available through open access via the e-document portal through the ANU library. https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/142525 The document DOI: 10.4225/13/5acea64c48693 The preferred citation is: L.K. Armand, P.E. O’Brien and On-board Scientific Party. 2018. Interactions of the Totten Glacier with the Southern Ocean through multiple glacial cycles (IN2017-V01): Post-survey report, Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University: Canberra, http://dx.doi.org/10.4225/13/5acea64c48693 Samples for diatom analysis were collected on board ship immediately after core recovery. Samples were dried in an oven at 50 degrees C prior to analytical work. Quantitative diatom slides were prepared according to the settling technique of Warnock and Scherer (2014). Cover slips were adhered to the slides using Norland Optical Adhesive #61. Slides were observed under Olympus CX31, BX50 and BX60, and Zeiss Primo Star light microscopes, using a 100X oil immersion objective for a total magnification of 1000X. A minimum of 400 valves or 10 transects was counted for each slide, depending on the absolute diatom abundance. Interglacial samples were relatively diatom-rich, consequently counts of 400 specimens were possible. However, most glacial samples were diatom-poor, making it very difficult and time-consuming to count 400 specimens. Under these conditions, 10 transects were counted, as has been done in previous studies of sediments with very low diatom concentrations (Rebesco et al., 2014). Valves were only counted if greaster than 50% complete. Diatoms were identified to species level when possible (Crosta et al., 2005; Armand et al., 2005; Cefarelli et al., 2010). Occurrences of biostratigraphic markers were noted and tallied concurrently. Species were considered extinct when observed stratigraphically higher than extinction boundaries as identified by Cody et al. (2008). Station_core Longitude Latitude A005_KC02_PC01 115.623 -64.471 A006_KC03 115.043 -64.463 A042_KC14 116.6403 -64.5387 C012_KC04_PC05 119.3012 -64.675 C013_KC05 119.0183 -64.6538 C015_KC06 118.696 -64.729 C018_KC07 118.498 -64.401 C020_KC08 119.739 -64.794 C022_KC11 120.049 -65.1313 C025_KC12_PC08 120.8635 -64.9538 C038_KC13 119.1035 -64.4828 Armand, L.K., X. Crosta, O. Romero, J. J. Pichon (2005), The biogeography of major diatom taxa in Southern Ocean sediments: 1. Sea ice related species, Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 223, 93-126. Cefarelli, A.O., M. E. Ferrario, G. O. Almandoz, A. G. Atencio, R. Akselman, M. Vernet (2010), Diversity of the diatom genus Fragilariopsis in the Argentine Sea and Antarctic waters: morphology, distribution and abundance, Polar Biology, 33(2), 1463-1484. Cody, R., R. H. Levy, D. M. Harwood, P. M. Sadler (2008), Thinking outside the zone: High-resolution quantitative diatom biochronology for the Antarctic Neogene, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 260, 92-121, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.08.020 Crosta, X., O. Romero, L. K. Armand, J. Pichon (2005), The biogeography of major diatom taxa in Southern Ocean sediments: 2. Open ocean related species, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 223, 66-92. Rebesco, M., E. Domack, F. Zgur, C. Lavoie, A. Leventer, S. Brachfeld, V. Willmott, G. Halverson, M. Truffer, T. Scambos, J. Smith, E. Pettit (2014), Boundary condition of grounding lines prior to collapse, Larson-B Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Science, 345, 1354-1358. Warnock, J. P., R. P. Scherer (2014), A revised method for determining the absolute abundance of diatoms, J. Paleolimnol., doi:10.1007/s10933-014-9808-0 These data were collected to provide paleoceanographic and biostratigraphic information. Amy Leventer, Isabel Dove, Meghan Duffy, and Meaghan Kendall unpublished data

  • Fast repetition rate fluorometer (FRRF) study of sea ice algae in low iron conditions. Algae were grown in an ice tank and the measurements were made at the end with a Chelsea Insrtuments FRRF. Materials and Methods (see the download document for original formatting and formulas) 1. Ice tank incubation The polar pennate diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus, isolated from Antarctic pack ice in 2015 (Davis station, East Antarctica) was incubated in a purpose designed ice tank (Island Research, Tasmania). The ice tank, which was contructed of titanium to minimise dissolved Fe, was placed into a freezer (–20 degrees C), and the ice thickness and temperature gradient controlled by interaction between a basal heater and the adjustable ambient freezer temperature (see Kennedy et al., 2012). This enabled an ice thickness of approximately 5.5 cm to be maintained during the experiment. The diatom F. cylindrus was incubated in Aquil media (Price et al. 1989) buffered with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 150 micro mol photons m−2 s−1 (PAR), a salinity of 35, and a Fe concentration of 400 nM, where the concentration of total inorganic forms of Fe (Fe') was 1.54 nM, this being continuously supplied to the medium and the exact value calculated using the software Visual MINTEQ, ver. 3.1 (https://vminteq.lwr.kth.se). Before a freezing cycle started, the seawater temperature was maintained at 2.5 degrees C, and a sample was obtained to assess the original physiological state of the algae (Day−5, hereafter). After obtaining the sample, the seawater temperature was set to −1.8 degrees C to initiate ice formation in the ice tank. Once ice had formed at Day−2, the under-ice seawater was partially replaced with ultrapure water to reduce the salinity down to 35, because the salinity had increased (to approximately 38) as a result of brine rejection from the ice. After a 2-day acclimation to the new salinity, ice samples were obtained every 5 days for 20 days (i.e., Days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20). To minimize the heterogeneity among ice cores, ice samples were randomly collected from the tank chamber with a trace metal-free hand drill (2 cm in diameter) from randomly annotated grids on the ice surface, following normal random sampling numbers generated by the software R (https://www.r-project.org/). To assess the effects of melting and high light exposure, the ice was melted at 2.5 degrees C for 2 days. After the ice had completely melted, the seawater was exposed to a high light level, which was adjusted to represent the likely summer light intensity at the surface in ice-edge regions (800 micro mol photons m−2 s−1; MODIS Aqua), Seawater samples were obtained both after the melting and light exposure events (Melt and Light, respectively, hereafter). 2. Fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorometry To monitor the photophysiology of F. cylindrus during the freezing and melting processes, variable chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) measurements were conducted using a bench-top Fast Repetition Rate fluorometer (FRRf) (FastOcean Act2Run Systems, Chelsea Technologies) with Act2Run software (Chelsea Technologies). Ice samples were directly thawed at 2 degrees C in the dark for 30 min, and the slushily melted ice samples were placed in a quartz tube and their flouresence (ChlF) was measured. A single turnover protocol was applied for the ChlF measurements; 100 flashlets with 1 micro second duration at a wavelength 450 nm and 2 micro second intervals for excitation of reaction centres of photosystem II (PSII, hereafter), and 20 flahlets with 1 μs duration and 100 micro second intervals for relaxation. Eighteen light steps were applied to generate a rapid light curve (RLC) from 0 to 1800 μmol photons m−2 s−1, taking less than 5 min to complete one RLC. At each light step (~15 s), at least five induction and relaxation curves were averaged to obtain ChlF yields, described in Table, after calibrating the ChlF yields with filtered seawater. According to the models proposed by Kolber et al. (1998), photosynthetic parameters of chlorophyll a (chl a) induction and relaxation curves were calculated based on the ChlF yields as shown in Table. Electron transport rate though the reaction centres of PSII (RCII) (ETRRCII) was calculated as per the equation detailed in the download document.

  • Diatom and biogenic particle fluxes were investigated over a one-year period (2001-02) at the southern Antarctic Zone in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean. Two vertically moored sediment traps were deployed at 60 degrees 44.43'S 139 degrees 53.97' E at 2000 and 3800 m below sea-level. In these data sets we present the results on the temporal and vertical variability of total diatom flux, species composition and biogenic particle fluxes during a year. A detailed description of the field experiment, sample processing and counting methods can be found in Rigual-Hernandez et al. (2015). Total fluxes of particulates at both traps were highly seasonal, with maxima registered during the austral summer (up to 1151 mg m-2 d-1 at 2000 m and 1157 mg m-2 d-1 at 3700 m) and almost negligible fluxes during winter (up to 42 mg m-2 d-1 at 2000 m and below detection limits at 3700 m). Particulate fluxes were slightly higher at 2000 m than at 3700 m (deployment average = 261 and 216 mg m-2 d-1, respectively). Biogenic silica (SiO2) was the dominant bulk component, regardless of the sampling period or depth (deployment average = 76% at 2000 and 78% at 3700 m). Highest relative contribution of opal was registered from the end of summer through early-autumn at both depths. Secondary contributors were carbonate (CaCO3) (7% at 2000 m and 9% at 3700 m) and particulate organic carbon (POC) (1.4% at 2000 m and 1.2% at 3700 m). The relative concentration of carbonate and POC was at its highest in austral spring and summer. Diatom frustules from 61 taxa were identified over the entire experiment. The dominant species of the diatom assemblage was Fragilariopsis kerguelensis with a mean flux between 53 x 106 and 60 x 106 valves m-2 day-1 at 2000 m (annualized mean and deployment average, respectively). Secondary contributors to the diatom assemblage at 2000 and 3700 m were Thalassiosira lentiginosa, Thalassiosira gracilis var. gracilis, Fragilariopsis separanda, Fragilariopsis pseudonana, Fragilariopsis rhombica, Fragilariopsis curta and Azpeitia tabularis. Data available: two excel files containing sampling dates and depths, raw counts, relative abundance and fluxes (valves m-2 d-1) of the diatom species, and biogenic particle fluxes found at 2000 m and 3700 m depth. Each file contains four spreadsheets: raw diatom valve counts, relative abundance of diatom species and valve flux of diatom species and biogenic particle composition and fluxes. Detailed information of the column headings is provided below. Cup - Cup (=sample) number Depth - vertical location of the sediment trap in meters below the surface Mid-point date - Mid date of the sampling interval Length (days) - number of days the cup was open Girdle bands instead of valves were counted for Dactyliosolen antarcticus Castracane. Therefore, D. antarcticus girdles counts were not included in relative abundance calculations

  • Diatom and biogenic particle fluxes were investigated over a two-year and six-year periods at the Subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones, respectively, in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean. Both sites were located along ~ 140 degrees E: station 47 degrees S was set on the abyssal plain of the central SAZ whereas station 54 degrees S was placed on a bathymetric high of the Southeast Indian Ridge in the PFZ. The data sets contain diatom species and biogeochemical flux data measured at 1000 m at the 47 degrees S site between 1999-2001 and at 800 m at the 54 degrees S site during six selected years between 1997-2007. All traps were MacLane Parflux sediment traps: conical in shape with a 0.5 m2 opening area and equipped with a carousel of 13 or 21 sampling cups. Shortest intervals corresponded with the austral summer and autumn ranging typically between 4.25 and 10 days, whereas the longest intervals were 60 days and corresponded with winter. Total fluxes of particulates at both traps were highly seasonal, with maxima registered during the austral spring and summer and very low fluxes during winter. Seasonality was more pronounced in the 54 degrees S site. Biogenic silica (SiO2) was the dominant bulk component in the PFZ while carbonate (CaCO3) dominated the particle fluxes at the SAZ. POC export was relatively similar between sites despite significant differences in the total diatom flux. Diatom frustules from 94 taxa were identified over the entire experiment. The dominant species of the diatom assemblage was Fragilariopsis kerguelensis at both sites, representing 43% and 59% of the integrated diatom assemblage at the 47 degrees S and 54 degrees S sites, respectively. Secondary contributors to the diatom assemblage at the 47 degrees S were Azpeitia tabularis, Thalassiosira sp. 1, Nitzschia bicapitata, resting spores of Chaetoceros spp., Thalassiosira oestrupii var. oestrupii, Hemidiscus cuneiformis and Roperia tesselata. Subordinate contributions to the diatom assemblage correspond to Pseudo-nitzschia lineola cf. lineola, Pseudo-nitzschia heimii, Thalassiosira gracilis group and Fragilariopsis pseudonana, Fragilariopsis rhombica and Thalassiosira lentiginosa. Data available: two excel files containing sampling dates and depths, raw counts, relative abundance and fluxes (valves m-2 d-1) of the diatom species, and biogenic particle fluxes measured at 1000 m and 800 m depth at the 47 degrees S and 54 degrees S sites, respectively. Each file contains four spreadsheets: raw diatom valve counts, relative abundance of diatom species and valve flux of diatom species and biogenic particle composition and fluxes. Detailed information of the column headings is provided below. Cup - Cup (=sample) number Depth - vertical location of the sediment trap in meters below the surface Mid-point date - Mid date of the sampling interval Length (days) - number of days the cup was open Girdle bands instead of valves were counted for Dactyliosolen antarcticus Castracane. Therefore, D. antarcticus girdles counts were not included in relative abundance calculations. Dates of data collection: 47 degrees S site: July 1999 - October 2001 (two-year record) 54 degrees S site: September 1997 - February 1998, July 1999 - August 2000, November 2002 - October 2004 and December 2005 - October 2007 (six-year record).

  • The collection aims to showcase the range of Southern Ocean diatom species found in the major hydrological provinces of the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean along the 140 degrees E. The collection includes specimens collected in the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ), Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and Antarctic Zone (AZ). Samples were collected with McLane Parflux time series sediment traps placed at several depths in the SAZ (47 degrees S site), PFZ (54 degrees S site) and AZ and (61 degrees S site) during the decade 1997-2007. The shortest sampling intervals were eight days and corresponded with the austral summer and autumn, whereas the longest interval was 60 days and corresponded with austral winter. Split aliquots were obtained for taxonomic analysis via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For improved taxonomic imaging, samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove carbonates and organic matter, respectively. A micropipette was used to transfer the suspension of selected samples to a round-glass cover slip following standard decantation method outlined by Barcena and Abrantes (1998). Samples were air-dried and coated with gold for SEM analysis. SEM analysis was carried out using a JEOL 6480LV scanning electron microscope. Taxonomy Diatoms include all algae from the Class Bacillariophyceae and follow the standardised taxonomy of World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). Order Asterolamprales Family Asterolampraceae Asteromphalus hookeri Ehrenberg Asteromphalus hyalinus Karsten Order Achnanthales Family Cocconeidaceae Cocconeis sp. Order Bacillariales Family Bacillariaceae Fragilariopsis curta (Van Heurck) Hustedt Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger Fragilariopsis kerguelensis (O'Meara) Hustedt Fragilariopsis pseudonana (Hasle) Hasle Fragilariopsis rhombica (O'Meara) Hustedt Fragilariopsis separanda Hustedt Nitzschia bicapitata Cleve Nitzschia kolaczeckii Grunow Nitzschia sicula (Castracane) Husted var. bicuneata (Grunow) Hasle Nitzschia sicula (Castracane) Husted var. rostrata Hustedt Pseudo-nitzschia heimii Manguin Pseudo-nitzschia lineola (Cleve) Hasle Pseudo-nitzschia turgiduloides Hasle Order Chaetocerotanae incertae sedis Family Chaetoceraceae Chaetoceros aequatorialis var. antarcticus Cleve Chaetoceros atlanticus Cleve Chaetoceros dichaeta Ehrenberg Chaetoceros peruvianus Brightwell Chaetoceros sp. Order Corethrales Family Corethraceae Corethron spp. Order Coscinodiscales Family Coscinodiscaceae Stellarima stellaris (Roper) Hasle et Sims Family Hemidiscaceae Actinocyclus sp. Azpeitia tabularis (Grunow) Fryxell et Sims Hemidiscus cuneiformis Wallich Roperia tesselata (Roper) Grunow Order Hemiaulales Family Hemiaulaceae Eucampia antarctica (Castracane) Mangin Order Naviculales Family Plagiotropidaceae Tropidoneis group Family Naviculaceae Navicula directa (Smith) Ralfs Family Pleurosigmataceae Pleurosigma sp. Order Rhizosoleniales Family Rhizosoleniaceae Dactyliosolen antarcticus Castracane Rhizosolenia antennata f. semispina Sundstrom Rhizosolenia antennata (Ehrenberg) Brown f. antennata Rhizosolenia cf. costata Gersonde Rhizosolenia polydactyla Castracane f. polydactyla Rhizosolenia simplex Karsten Proboscia alata (Brightwell) Sundstrom Proboscia inermis (Castracane) Jordan Ligowski Order Thalassiosirales Family Thalassiosiraceae Porosira pseudodenticulata (Hustedt) Jouse Thalassiosira ferelineata Hasle et Fryxell Thalassiosira gracilis (Karsten) Hustedt Thalassiosira lentiginosa (Janisch) Fryxell Thalassiosira oestrupii (Ostenfeld) Hasle var. oestrupii Fryxell et Hasle Thalassiosira oliveriana (O'Meara) Makarova et Nikolaev Thalassiosira tumida (Janisch) Hasle Order Thalassionematales Family Thalassionemataceae Thalassionema nitzschioides var. lanceolatum Grunow Thalassiothrix antarctica Schimper ex Karsten Data available: 73 SEM images of the most abundant diatom species found at the three sampling sites. Samples were collected by several sediment traps placed at different depths in the Subantarctic Zone (47 degrees S site), Polar Frontal Zone (54 degrees S site) and Antarctic Zone (61 degrees S site) during the decade 1997-2007. The collection site and date for each species image can be found in Table 1 (see the word document in the download file).

  • This dataset contains the abundance of diatom species found in the surface sediments from cores collected as part of the CEAMARC (Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census) mission. The cores were collected from the George V basin along the Antarctic coast. Latitude, longitude and water depth data are included for each site. Sediments were prepared following standard diatom preparation techniques (Rathburn et al 1997).

  • Reconstructed sea spray and minerogenic data for a 12,000 year lake sediment record from Emerald Lake, Macquarie Island. Proxies are based on biological (diatoms) and geochemical (micro x-ray fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging) indicators. Data correspond to the figures in: Saunders et al. 2018 Holocene dynamics of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds and possible links to CO2 outgassing. Nature Geoscience 11:650-655. doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0186-5. Detailed supplementary information: https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41561-018-0186-5/MediaObjects/41561_2018_186_MOESM1_ESM.pdf Abstract: The Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHW) play an important role in regulating the capacity of the Southern Ocean carbon sink. They modulate upwelling of carbon-rich deep water and, with sea ice, determine the ocean surface area available for air–sea gas exchange. Some models indicate that the current strengthening and poleward shift of these winds will weaken the carbon sink. If correct, centennial- to millennial-scale reconstructions of the SHW intensity should be linked with past changes in atmospheric CO2, temperature and sea ice. Here we present a 12,300-year reconstruction of wind strength based on three independent proxies that track inputs of sea-salt aerosols and minerogenic particles accumulating in lake sediments on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. Between about 12.1 thousand years ago (ka) and 11.2 ka, and since about 7 ka, the wind intensities were above their long-term mean and corresponded with increasing atmospheric CO2. Conversely, from about 11.2 to 7.2 ka, the wind intensities were below their long-term mean and corresponded with decreasing atmospheric CO2. These observations are consistent with model inferences of enhanced SHW contributing to the long-term outgassing of CO2 from the Southern Ocean.

  • This data provides the absolute abundance of diatom valves from cores recovered from the George V coast as part of the CEAMARC (Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census) mission of 2007-2008. Data are presented as valves/gram dry weight of sediment. All samples analyzed were core top samples, however no age constraints have been established. Chaetoceros resting spores were included in the absolute abundance calculations. Slides were prepared following Rathburn et al 1997.